Energy accounts and environmental economic instruments Viveka Palm, Statistics Sweden. Vienna 2008. Oslo-group firstname.lastname@example.org Ongoing projects with Eurostat grants financing. Sweden: a) monetary accounts (environmentally motivated and environmentally harmful energy subsidies, Energy costs and investments), b) methods for international transport energy use Norway: on reporting of physical energy accounts.
The environmental accounts Environm. statistics Environmental Accounts National Accounts
Three components of SEEA • Flows of materials per industry (energy, material, emissions, waste) • Economic variables (labour, taxes, subsidies, costs, products and services) • Natural resources (stocks, quality, value)
Sectors - Industries - Products Sectors Industries Product/service
DPSIR-model Population Energy use Industry Transport Response Driving forces Laws Taxes, subsidies New technology Emissions Waste Impact Pressure Bad health Threatened species Econ.losses Physical, chemical and biological state Air-, water- and Land quality State
goods capital Industries, government, households services work force waste material emissions energy
Regular publishing • Energy use per industry and final demand • Emissions to air • Environmental taxes and subsidies • Environmental protection expenditure • Chemical product use • Waste for selected years • Environmental goods and services
Non-regular publishing • Indicators for sustainable development • Water-, Land- , Forest accounts • Household accounts • Decomposition analysis • Regional environmental accounts • Material flow analysis
Taxes and subsidies in the environmental accounts • Subsidies: • 1) Product- and other production subsidies • 2) Investment grants Taxes: 1) Product- and other production taxes 2) Other levies (e.g. charges) 3) Tax subsidies
Energy subsidy types ● Direct transfers (to producers, households) ● Public R&D ● Preferential tax treatments ● Loans ● Trade restrictions ● Price controls ● Infrastructure
Environmental taxes ● The OECD and EUROSTAT definition “…it has been chosen to single out the tax bases that seem to have a particular environmental relevance, and to consider all taxes levied on these tax bases as environmentally related regardless of the motives behind their introduction, their names etc.”
SEEA and basic energy statistics • Time series in focus –and regular revisions of data! How can this be dealt with in the data base planned? Increased quality through cooperation. • Transport energy use by industry, not sector • Data on renewable energy needed (car fuel e.g.) • Small business: enumerating the surveys by industry (NACE), avoiding ‘other’ sector. • Different system boundary SNA/air emission statistics: Fuels that are not bought and sold (by-products) are outside of SNA, but in env. stat. • Can energy use and air reporting use the same allocation methods? Emissions from processes a separate issue.
Connections to the Oslo group work • ●Time series in focus –and regular revisions of classifications! How can this be dealt with in the data base planned? • ● Data on renewable energy needed • ● Small business enumerated by industry • Transport energy use by industry, not sector • ● Fuels that are not bought and sold, outside of SNA, but in env. stat. • ● Energy taxes and subsidies – How will they be reported to the international bodies. A correspondence between SNA reporting and energy reporting? • ● A ‘new’ user group: the modelers of environmental -economic instruments