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Hear Their Voices: Springfield’s Children in Poverty Denise Cunningham Paul Rollinson Sue George Lloyd Young Cindy MacGregor Bev Long ADVISORY PANEL Sr. Lorraine Biebel Dr. Sandy D’Angelo Dr. Judy Dasovitch Rev. David Huskisson THE COMMUNITY’S CHALLENGE

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hear their voices

Hear Their Voices:

Springfield’s Children in Poverty

Denise

Cunningham

Paul

Rollinson

Sue

George

Lloyd

Young

Cindy

MacGregor

Bev

Long

slide2

ADVISORYPANEL

Sr. Lorraine Biebel Dr. Sandy D’Angelo

Dr. Judy Dasovitch Rev. David Huskisson

the community s challenge
THE COMMUNITY’S CHALLENGE
  • “A growing number of families are living below the
  • poverty level, as suggested by the dynamic growth in the
  • number of children enrolled in the free and reduced lunch
  • program. This troublesome trend has significant
  • implications; the lingering effects of poverty can be felt in
  • every area of community life…Child abuse and neglect,
  • family violence, crime, drug and alcohol abuse, teen
  • pregnancy, and other societal problems happen in every
  • segment of society but are most prevalent among the poor.
  • The economic cost of lost potential and productivity is
  • staggering, and the cost of treatment burdens all
  • Springfield and Greene County residents.”

Source: Community Focus 2005: A Report for Springfield and Greene County, p. 9.

Retrieved March 17, 2007 http://www.springfieldcommunity focus.org

community response
COMMUNITY RESPONSE
  • The GRANTMAKER’S CHALLENGE FOR CHILDREN, undertaken by 25 collaborating local philanthropic and funding agencies, and individuals, is investing $7.83 million over a five year period (2006 – 2011) to support community programs which focus on the problems of children, especially children growing up in poverty. 

Community agencies, churches, and others have made concerted efforts to address the problem’s related to childhood poverty.

Source: January 2007 Update on Projects in the Grantmakers Challenge, prepared by the Community Foundation of the Ozarks.

questions
Questions
  • What is poverty?
  • How many children are growing up in poverty?
  • Where are children growing up in poverty?
  • Why are children growing up in poverty?
  • What are these children’s lives like?
  • What do these children need from their families and community?
  • Why should the community respond?
what is poverty
What is Poverty?
  • The US. Census Bureau defines the “absolute poverty line” as the threshold below which families or individuals are considered to be lacking the resources to meet the basic needs for healthy living; having sufficient income to provide the food, shelter, and clothing needed to preserve health.
  • The poverty threshold is 3 times the cost of the Economy Food Plan, which is the least costly nutritionally adequate of the four the Department of Agriculture’s food plans.
  • The poverty threshold is tied to annual changes in the Consumer Price Index.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau retrieved March 15, 2007 http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/povdef.html

typical family of four 19 806
Typical Family of Four - $19,806

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2005.

Retrieved March 17, 2006 http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf

slide9

Number in Poverty and Poverty Rate 1959-2005 United States

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2005.

Retrieved March 17, 2006 http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf

poverty rates by age 1959 2005 united states
Poverty Rates by Age 1959-2005 United States

Source: U.S. Census Bureau. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2005.

Retrieved March 17, 2006 http://www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/p60-231.pdf

missouri poverty data 2004 2005
Missouri Poverty Data 2004-2005

American Community Survey retrieved March 28,2007

factfinder.census.gov/servlet/STTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US29&-qr_name=ACS_2005_

EST_G00_S1701&-ds_name=ACS_2005_EST_G00_&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false

slide12

Poverty Rates Springfield

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)

American Community Survey retrieved March 38, 2007

http://www.census.gov/acs/www/Products/Profiles/Single/2003/ACS/Tabular/380/38000US79203.htm

greene county children in poverty 1990 2005
Greene County Children in Poverty 1990-2005

Kids Count 2005 Profiles retrieved 4/1/07 http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data

/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/reports.html

U.S. Census Bureau American Fact Finder retrieved 4/1/07

http://www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData/

greene county family poverty ratios 2005
Greene County Family Poverty Ratios 2005

U.S. Census Bureau American Fact Finder retrieved 4/1/07

http://www.census.gov/acs/www/UseData

slide15
For 2006, the federal poverty level is $20,000 for a family of four. There were 1,377,910 children in 808,039 families in Missouri.

Missouri Poor and Near Poor Children

in 2006

875,516 children 271,748 children 230,646 children

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty retrieved 2/8/07 from http://www.nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_poor_MO.html

slide17

Persistent Poverty Counties

Persistent poverty counties– 20 percent or more residents were poor as measured by each of the last four censuses, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000.

Source: http://www.kc.frb.org/PUBLICAT/heartlnd/hrtdrabe.pdf

origin of homeless households
Origin of Homeless Households

By County Who Moved to Springfield in 2000

Source: Rollinson, Paul A. and Pardeck John T. 2006. Homelessness in Rural America. Haworth Press.

missouri children in poverty 2000
Missouri Children in Poverty(%)2000

Percent of Related Children Under 18 Below Poverty Level in Missouri, by County 2000

Missouri = 15.3%

Greene County

Source: Retrieved March 17, 2007 http://oseda.missouri.edu/maps/poverty/pct_poor_kids_2000_co.gif

regional poverty levels 2000
Regional Poverty Levels, 2000

Source: Missouri Economic Research & Information Center (MERIC),

Mo Dept. of Economic Development

retrieved February 8, 2007 http://www.missourieconomy.org/regional/census/sphhinc.stm

springfield state house districts poverty percent 2000
Springfield State House Districts Poverty Percent 2000

139

137

134

138

136

140

135

Source: Annie E Casey Foundation, KIDS COUNT CENSUS DATA ONLINE

retrieved February 8, 2007 www.aecf.org/cgi-bin/aeccensus.cgi?action=

profileresults&area=29S

characteristics of poor families
Strong sense of family

High priority on their children

Strong social units, attachments, and bonds

Recurrent behavior patterns that provide a sense of security

Boundaries that have meaning even if they don’t work well

Tolerant of frustrations

Skills in seeking and using help

Generous and empathetic attitude toward others in similar circumstances

Creative use of limited income

The ability to balance multiple low paying jobs

Characteristics of Poor Families

Source: Working with Families of the Poor: Patricia Minuchin, Jorge Colapinto,

and Salvador Minuchin 2007 pp. 25-26, 51

missouri s poor parents are working
Missouri’s Poor Parents are Working
  • 27% (61,428) of children in poor families have at least one parent who is employed full-time, year-round.
  • 48% (111,500) of children in poor families have at least one parent who is employed either part-year or part-time.25% (57,717) of children in poor families do not have an employed parent.

75% Are Working

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty retrieved February 8, 2007

http://www. nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_poor_MO.html

financial traps
Financial Traps
  • Low income individuals find themselves in need of funds to meet expenses and do not have access to more traditional means of payment. They are forced to turn to financing opportunities that often cost significantly larger rates of pay for access to the funds. 1
  • Pay Day Loans2
  • Car Title Loans2
  • Refund Anticipation Loans 3

1 PAYDAY ADVANCE CREDIT IN AMERICA: AN ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMER DEMAND Monograph #35 April 2001

Gregory Elliehausen, Ph.D., Edward C. Lawrence, Ph.D.p.1

2 Missouri Office of State Auditor, Report No. 2001-36: division of Finance & Regulationof the Instant Loan Industry (May 9, 2001

Retrieved February 21, 2007 http://www.auditor.mo.gov/press/2001-36.htm p. 3

3 Another Year of Losses: High Priced Refund Anticipation Loans Continue to take a Chunk out of American’s Tax Refunds retrieved February 21, 2007 http://www.consumerlaw.org/action_agenda/refund_anticipation/content/2006RALReport.pdf p.p 1,2

growth in missouri payday lenders 2003 2007
Growth in Missouri Payday Lenders 2003-2007

Report to General Assembly from Division of Finance January 17, 2007 retrieved February 15, 2007

http://www.missouri-finance.org/upload/2007_payday_lender_survey_001.pdf

map of springfield payday and title lenders
Map of Springfield Payday and Title Lenders

Source: Division of Finance Sept 30, 2006

http://www.missouri-finance.org/Contribute%20Documents/500list.pdf

missouri children who moved 2005
Missouri Children Who Moved 2005

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty retrieved February 15, 2007

http://www.nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_poor_MO.html

slide29

Missouri Educational Status of

Parents of Poor Children, 2006

  • 55% (68,127) of children whose parents do not have a high school degree live in poor families.28% (102,566) of children whose parents have a high school degree, but no college education live in poor families.7% (59,953) of children whose parents have some college or more live in poor families.

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty retrieved March 17, 2007

http://www.nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_poor_MO.html

missouri annual high school student dropout rate 2005
Missouri Annual High School Student Dropout Rate 2005

Greene County

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007 http://oseda.missouri.edu/kidscount/maps.shtml

missouri children in single parent families 2006
Missouri Children in Single Parent Families 2006
  • 69% (158,286) of children
  • in poor families live with a
  • single parent.
  • 26% (295,318) of children
  • in not poor families live
  • with a single parent.

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty retrieved February 8, 2007 http://www.nccp.org/state_detail_demographic_poor_MO.html

greene county of single parents with children 1990 2000
Greene County % of Single Parents with Children 1990-2000

(12,765 Children)

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reportsgraphs/graphs.html

missouri teen births 2005
Missouri Teen Births 2005

Greene County

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006, retrieved February 8, 2007

http://oseda.missouri.edu/kidscount/maps.shtml

greene county teen birth rate 1990 2005
Greene County Teen Birth Rate1990-2005

(408 births in 2005)

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieve February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

lingering effects of poverty
Lingering Effects of Poverty
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Adverse Childhood Experiences Study
  • retrieved 3/29/06 http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/ace/index.htm
behavioral health issues
Behavioral Health Issues
  • 2411 Children in Greene County were receiving treatment for Serious Emotional Disorders in 2005.

Source: Mo Kids Count 2006

526 women who were below poverty level received chemical dependency treatment from Carol Jones Recovery Center in 2006. 157 children below poverty level participated in programs with their parents or in child care programs in 2006.

Source: Carol Jones Staff 3/16/07

poverty has many causes including
Poverty Has Many Causes, including…..
  • Low paying/ Limiting Employment
  • Financial Traps
  • Low Educational Levels
  • Single Parents
  • Teen Births
  • Health Issues
springfield house districts cumulative poverty social problems 2000
Springfield House Districts Cumulative Poverty Social Problems 2000

139

137

134

138

136

140

135

Source: Annie E Casey Foundation

KIDS COUNT CENSUS DATA ONLINE

retrieved February 8, 2007 www.aecf.org/cgi-bin/aeccensus.cgi?action=

profileresults&area=29S

the voices of educators and kindergarten children
The Voices of Educators and Kindergarten Children
  • What does it look like to the children?
  • Interviews were conducted with Educators and Children between October 2006 and January 2007 to gain a sense of the world of kindergartners in poverty.
a note regarding methodology dr denise cunningham
A Note Regarding MethodologyDr. Denise Cunningham
  • The following qualitative data were gathered through formal and informal interviews with kindergarten students and educators from Greene County schools.
  • Over a six month period, I had interactions with nearly 200 5-6 years olds
  • Educators included: regular classroom teachers, Title 1 teachers, reading coaches, and school administrators.
  • Kindergarten children were students identified by school administrators as receiving free/reduced priced meals.
methodology cont
Methodology cont.
  • Interviews with educators continued until saturation of information occurred.
  • Interviews were transcribed and thematically coded.
  • Data presented represents ideas most frequently stated by educators.
  • Informed consent forms were signed by parent/guardian of children.
  • Children’s quotes were gathered during formal interviews.
children s dreams
Children’s Dreams
  • “A police officer. I like him. He’s been to our house sometimes when mommy calls him.”

What do you want to be when you grow up?

“Astronaut. I like the stars.”

“I’ll like to be a doctor. But I probably have to pass first grade first.”

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

academic picture educator s perspective
Academic Picture: Educator’s Perspective
  • Limited background experiences
  • Limited language & vocabulary
  • Fewer problem-solving skills – more behavioral problems

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

school child s perspective
School:Child’s perspective
  • “I don’t like “most the other stuff ‘cept for recess.”

“I think it is stupid and I don’t like school work.”

“I don’t like lots (about school). I don’t like to read books.”

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

socio emotional picture educator s perspective
Socio-Emotional Picture:Educator’s Perspective
  • Display more overt aggression
  • Less likely to delay gratification
  • Less likely to respond to typical “middle class” behavior modification like working toward a reward
  • Difficulty acting in pro-social manner

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

health picture educator s perspective
Health Picture:Educator’s Perspective
  • Poor condition of overall health and dental hygiene
  • Frequently ill
  • Chronic head lice

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

parental involvement educator s perspective
Parental Involvement: Educator’s Perspective
  • Poverty background families tend to have more “crises type” issues
  • Prone to cancel appointments or don’t show up
  • Lack of reliable transportation interferes with school involvement

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

childhood voices of hope
Childhood Voices of Hope
  • “When I grow up, I’ll be tall with lots of muscles. I’ll be like a super hero. Then I can make bad things disappear…like grown-up problems and stuff.”

“When I grow up I’d like to ride a bus…a purple bus.

Things will be different when I grow up.”

“it will all be good then.”

Source: Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

slide51
The teens we talked with frequent the
  • Rare Breed Youth Outreach Center.

The most compelling information we gathered was from

teens in our community……

Unfortunately they are living proof of the results of poverty.

And without help the cycle will perpetuate.

america s promise categories
America’s Promise Categories
  • Caring Adults
  • Safe Places
  • A Healthy Start
  • Effective Education
  • Opportunities to Help Others

Source: America’s Promise, www.americaspromise.org.

what are the needs of young children
What are the Needs of Young Children?
  • Stable home life without violence
  • Regular medical and dental care
  • High quality preschool/day care
  • Educational opportunities that promote social-emotional development as well as academics – constructivist curriculum for preschool through second grade
  • Protect their dreams and hopes

Source: Literature Review & Springfield Children in Poverty Project Interviews, Oct. 06- Jan 07

what are the needs of teens
What Are The Needs of Teens?
  • Stable housing
  • Opportunities for children to meet their educational potential - to complete high school or learn meaningful job skills
  • Employment options
  • Affordable medical, dental and mental health care

Alternatives to predatory loans

Homes without violence

Vision for the future

Someone who loves me and that I could count on

Source: Literature Review & Springfield Children in Poverty Interviews July – Dec 2006

educational needs of our youth
Educational Needs of Our Youth
  • High quality preschool
  • Experiences to help “fill gaps” (e.g. field trips, time for exploration & discovery)
  • Curriculum that is MEANINGFUL & INTERESTING
  • Integrated curriculum
  • Access to qualified counselors

Greg Fruian & Jocelyn A. Butler (1999). Effective Schooling Practices and At-Risk Youth: What the Research Says

the help that is needed
The Help That is Needed
  • Even if economic opportunities are expanded, they cannot be seized by young people whose health has been neglected, whose education has failed to equip them with the skills they need and whose early lives have left them devoid of hope and without the capacity to persevere.

Source: Lisbeth Bamberger Schorr, in Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy edited by Aletha c Huston,1991 p. 260.

our community should respond because
Our Community Should Respond Because….
  • There are many poverty-related problems for the community
  • The problem is growing
  • The costs are greater for not responding
  • It’s the right thing to do!
slide61
There are many poverty-related problems for our community that are increasing in severity and numbers….
  • Homelessness
  • Domestic violence
  • Juvenile offenders
  • Child abuse and neglect
  • Foster, relative, and residential care placements
  • Use of social support programs
greene county homeless population
Greene County Homeless Population
  • Homeless Count 2005
  • 440 Homeless
    • 406 sheltered
    • 34 unsheltered
    • 234 individuals or 53.18%
    • 206 families with children or 46.82%
    • National Alliance to End Homelessness, Homelessness Counts 1/07 p.31 retrieved 3/27/07http://www.endhomelessness.org/content/article/detail/1440

Homelessness in Rural America: Policy & Practice, Paul A Rollinson & John T. Pardeck 2006, p. 46

greene county domestic violence
Domestic Violence Reported by Greene County Law Enforcement Agencies 2006

3,242 incidents 13.0 per 1000 population

The Family Violence Shelter provided :

Emergency Shelter for 703 women and children

Crisis calls for 2,053 women and children

Greene County Domestic Violence
  • Family Violence Shelter 2004 data retrieved 3/17/07
  • http://www.familyviolencecenter.org/_wsn/../_wsn/Full_History_P2

Missouri Highway Patrol Data retrieved 3/27/07

http://www.mshp.dps.missouri.gov/MSHPWeb/SAC/data_and_statistics_ucr_query%20-%20backup.html

greene county juvenile offenders 1990 2004
Greene County Juvenile Offenders1990-2004

2473 offenders 103.1 per 1000

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county child abuse neglect report trend 1995 2005
Greene County Child Abuse & Neglect Report Trend 1995-2005

3791 reports 71.5 per 1000

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county foster relative and residential care placements 1990 2005
Greene County Foster, Relative, and Residential Care Placements 1990-2005

400 Children 7.5 per 1000

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county free reduced lunch 1996 2005
Greene County Free & Reduced Lunch 1996-2005

(14,152 Children)

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

missouri children receiving medicaid 2000
Missouri Children Receiving Medicaid 2000

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county children receiving food stamps 1990 2005
Greene County Children Receiving Food Stamps 1990-2005

(17,691Children)

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

early intervention is critical
Early Intervention is Critical
  • The younger the child, the greater the risk of poverty. Experiencing poverty during early childhood is the most harmful time.
  • Children from poverty are less likely to be healthy.
  • At age 4, poor children are 18 months behind developmentally, and at age 10, the gap is still there.
  • Families with more money invest more in material resources that promote learning for their children.

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty. (2007). Testimony on the Economic and Societal Costs of Poverty. Retrieved February. 12, 2007 http://www.nccp.org/pub_wmt07.html

early invention matters
Early Invention Matters
  • Parents with more money are less likely to be stressed and depressed, both of which have been linked to social and emotional outcomes for children.
  • Early relationships (e.g., with stressed parents) shape the hard wiring of the brain, which in turn shape later learning, the ability to manage emotions, and even the immune system.
  • Investing in children’s early development saves long-term expenses related to failures in education, health problems, and mental illness.

Source: National Center for Children in Poverty. (2007). Testimony on the Economic and Societal Costs of Poverty. Retrieved February. 12, 2007 http://www.nccp.org/pub_wmt07.html

slide73

Greene County Public Immunization Rate 1994-2004

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieve March 28, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county high school graduation rate 1994 2005
Greene County High School Graduation Rate 1994-2005

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February 8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

greene county high school drop out rate 1990 2005
Greene County High School Drop-Out Rate 1990-2005

571students (5.2%)

Source: Missouri Kids Count 2006 retrieved February8, 2007

http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/data/indctrs/kidscnt/reports_graphs/graphs.html

the future without action
The Future Without Action
  • We’ve tried to put a face on CHILDREN’S Poverty in our Community.
  • Now it’s up to the Community to find solutions.
  • If we don’t the future could be:
slide77

“The true measure of the humanity of an affluent society is not how the society treats it’s wealthy but how it treats it’s poor… Child poverty translates into child malnutrition, untreated health and dental problems, poor housing, and inadequate educational progress. These handicaps mean not only that the conditions of child poverty are harsh but that the lack of supportive conditions for human development will limit adult productivity and attainment”

Source: Henry M.Levin, p. 241, Children in Poverty: Child Development and Public Policy edited by Aletha C Huston 1991

slide79

Presentation Access

This presentation will be available to be downloaded by Monday, April 9.

Open the web site of the Community and Social Issues Institute:

www.missouristate.edu/csii/

Click on “current projects”

Scroll down to “Children in Poverty”