chapter 11 group influence and opinion leadership l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 44

Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership By Michael R. Solomon Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth Edition Opening Vignette: Zachary Does Zachary meet your mental stereotype for a Harley Davidson owner? Why does Zachary desire to have more Harley “stuff”?

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 11 Group Influence and Opinion Leadership' - Gabriel

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 11 group influence and opinion leadership

Chapter 11Group Influence and Opinion Leadership

By Michael R. Solomon

Consumer Behavior

Buying, Having, and Being

Sixth Edition

opening vignette zachary
Opening Vignette: Zachary
  • Does Zachary meet your mental stereotype for a Harley Davidson owner?
  • Why does Zachary desire to have more Harley “stuff”?
  • How do Zach’s fellow RUBs influence his purchases?
  • What benefits does Zach enjoy from his association with other Harley owners?
reference groups
Reference Groups
  • Reference Group
    • An actual or imaginary individual or group conceived of having significant relevance upon an individual’s evaluations, aspirations, or behavior
    • Three ways reference groups influence consumers
      • Informational
      • Utilitarian
      • Value-Expressive
    • Some people are more influential than others in affecting consumers’ product preferences.
when reference groups are important
When Reference GroupsAre Important
  • Social Power:
    • The capacity to alter the actions of others
  • Referent Power:
    • When consumers imitate qualities by copying behaviors of a prominent person they admire.
  • Information Power:
    • Able to influence consumer opinion by virtue of their (assumed) access to the “truth”
  • Legitimate Power:
    • Granted to people by virtue of social agreements, sometimes conferred by a uniform
expert power
Expert Power
  • A physician has expert power, and a white coat reinforces this expertise by conferring legitimate power.
when reference groups are important cont
When Reference GroupsAre Important (cont.)
  • Expert Power:
    • Derived from possessing specific knowledge about a content area
  • Reward Power:
    • When a person or group has the means to provide positive reinforcement
  • Coercive Power:
    • Influencing a person by social or physical intimidation
types of reference groups
Types of Reference Groups
  • Reference Group:
    • Any external influence that provides social cues
  • Normative Influence:
    • The reference group helps to set and enforce fundamental standards of conduct.
  • Comparative Influence:
    • When decisions about specific brands or activities are affected.
discussion question
Discussion Question
  • Marketers often portray products being used in groups that represent favorable reference groups to the target market.
  • What type of message does this ad convey? What type of influence is this ad designed to exert on its target audience?
brand communities and tribes
Brand Communities and Tribes
  • Brand Community:
    • A set of consumers who share a set of social relationships based upon usage or interest in a product.
      • Brandfests
  • Consumer Tribe:
    • A group of people who share a lifestyle and who can identify with each other because of a shared allegiance to an activity or product.
  • Tribal Marketing:
    • To link one’s product to the needs of a group as a whole.
products as a way to be popular
Products as a Way to be Popular
  • Many products, especially those targeted to young people, are often touted as a way to take the inside track to popularity. This Brazilian ad lets us know about people who don’t like a certain shoe.
membership vs aspirational reference groups
Membership vs. AspirationalReference Groups
  • Aspirational Reference Groups
    • Comprise idealized figures such as successful business people, athletes, or performers.
  • Membership Reference Group
    • Ordinary people whose consumption activities provide informational social influence.
      • Propinquity:Physical nearness.
      • Mere Exposure:Liking persons or things simply as a result of seeing them more often (mere exposure phenomenon)
      • Group Cohesiveness:The degree to which members of a group are attracted to each other and value their group membership.
positive versus negative reference groups
Positive Versus NegativeReference Groups
  • Avoidance Groups
    • Groups that consumers purposely try to distance themselves from
      • Nerds
      • Druggies
      • Preppies
    • The motivation to distance oneself from a negative reference group can be as powerful or more powerful than the desire to please a positive group
positive reference groups
Positive Reference Groups
  • This recruiting ad presents a compelling role model for young women contemplating a career in the armed forces.
consumers do it in groups
Consumers Do it in Groups
  • Deindividuation:
    • A process in which individual identities become submerged within a group.
  • Social Loafing:
    • People do not devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group effort
  • Risky Shift:
    • Group members are willing to consider riskier alternatives subsequent to group discussion
  • Diffusion of Responsibility:
    • As more people are involved in a decision, each individual is less accountable for the outcome
  • Costumes hide our true identities and encourage deindividuation.
consumers do it in groups cont
Consumers Do it in Groups (cont.)
  • Value Hypothesis:
    • Riskiness is a culturally valued characteristic to which individuals feel pressure to conform
  • Decision Polarization:
    • Whichever direction the group members were leaning toward before discussion becomes more extreme subsequent to discussion
  • Home Shopping Parties:
    • Capitalize on group pressures to increase sales
home shopping parties
Home Shopping Parties
  • Women at a home Tupperware party.
group influences
Group Influences
  • Group pressure often influences our clothing choices.
  • Conformity
    • A change in beliefs or actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressure.
  • Norms
    • Informal rules that govern behavior.
  • Factors Influencing the Likelihood of Conformity
    • Cultural Pressures
    • Fear of Deviance
    • Commitment
      • Principle of Least Interest
    • Group Unanimity, Size, and Expertise
    • Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence
      • Role-relaxed consumers
social comparison
Social Comparison
  • Social Comparison Theory:
    • Asserts that people look to the behavior of others to increase the stability of their self-evaluation
    • Co-oriented peer: A person of equivalent standing
  • Resisting Conformity:
    • Independence: Being oblivious or indifferent to the expectations of others
    • Anticonformity: Defiance of the group is the actual behavior
    • Reactance: The negative emotional state that results when we are deprived of our freedom to choose
word of mouth communication
Word-of-Mouth Communication
  • Word-of-Mouth (WOM):
    • Product information transmitted by individuals to individuals.
  • Negative WOM and the Power of Rumors:
    • Negative WOM: Consumers weigh negative info from other consumers more heavily than they do positive comments
discussion question26
Discussion Question
  • This ad for a video game says, “Conformity Bytes!”, but then captions, “Join the Revolution!” Why?
  • Does this ad encourage independence or anticonformity?
word of mouth27
  • The U.S. Postal Service hopes to create a buzz via word of mouth.
  • is a Web site dedicated to tracking hoaxes and debunking product rumors.
changing information
Changing Information
  • Serial Reproduction:
    • Technique to examine the phenomenon that information changes as it is transmitted among consumers
      • Assimilation: Distortions tend to follow a pattern from ambiguous to conventional to fit with existing schemas
      • Leveling: Details are omitted to simplify structure
      • Sharpening: Prominent details are accentuated
cutting edge wom strategies
Cutting-Edge WOM Strategies
  • Virtual Communities
    • Virtual Community of Consumption: A collection of people whose online interactions are based upon shared enthusiasm for and knowledge of a specific consumption activity.
      • Multi-user Dungeons (MUD)
      • Rooms, rings and lists (e.g. chat rooms)
      • Boards
      • Blogs (weblog)
four types of virtual community members
Four Types of VirtualCommunity Members
  • Tourists:
    • Lack strong social ties to the group
  • Minglers:
    • Maintain strong social ties, but are not interested in the central consumption activity
  • Devotees:
    • Express strong interest in the activity, but have few social attachments to the group
  • Insiders:
    • Exhibit both strong social ties and strong interest in the activity
guerrilla marketing
Guerrilla Marketing
  • Guerrilla Marketing
    • Promotional strategies that use unconventional locations and intensive word-of-mouth campaigns to push products.
      • Brand Ambassadors
  • Viral Marketing
    • Refers to the strategy of getting customers to sell a product on behalf of the company that creates it.
guerrilla marketing ads
Guerrilla Marketing Ads
  • Ads painted on sidewalks are one form of guerrilla marketing.
opinion leadership
Opinion Leadership
  • The Nature of Opinion Leadership
    • Opinion Leaders: People who are knowledgeable about products and whose advice is taken seriously by others.
    • Homophily: The degree to which a pair of individuals is similar in terms of education, social status, and beliefs.
  • How Influential Is an Opinion Leader?
    • Generalized Opinion Leader: Somebody whose recommendations are sought for all types of purchases.
    • Monomorphic: An expert in a limited field.
    • Polymorphic: An expert in many fields.
opinion leaders market shoes
Opinion Leaders Market Shoes
  • Opinion leadership is a big factor in the marketing of athletic shoes. Many styles first become popular in the inner city and then spread by word-of-mouth.
types of opinion leaders
Types of Opinion Leaders
  • Innovators
    • Early purchasers
  • Innovative Communicators
    • Opinion leaders who also are early purchasers
    • Opinion leaders also are likely to be opinion seekers
  • The Market Maven
    • Describes people who are actively involved in transmitting marketplace information of all types.
  • The Surrogate Consumer
    • A person who is hired to provide input in purchase decisions.
cool hunters and mavens
Cool hunters and mavens
  • Maven - unpaid enthusiasts who initiate discussions with consumers and respond to requests for information
    • neighbourhoods mavens
    • professional mavens (critics, reviewers, correspondents)
    • celebrity mavens (Beckham)
  • modern consumers need maverns to
    • seek relevant information
    • provide a ‘trustworthy’ recommendation
    • decide which is best
  • examples
    • Blair Witch Project
    • Harry Potter

Lewis and Bridger 2000

fashion opinion leaders
Fashion Opinion Leaders
  • Fashion opinion leaders tend to be knowledgeable about clothing and highly motivated to stay on top of fashion trends.
identifying opinion leaders
Identifying Opinion Leaders
  • Self-designated Opinion Leaders
  • Sociometric Methods
    • Trace Communication patterns among members of a group.
    • Referral Behavior
    • Network Analysis: Focuses on communication in social systems
    • Referral Network
    • Tie Strength: The nature of the bond between people.
    • Bridging Function: Allows a consumer access between subgroups.
    • Cliques: Subgroups