Biped Robots - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biped Robots

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  1. Biped Robots

  2. Definitions • Static Walking • The centre of gravity of the robot is always within the area bounded by the feet that are touching the ground • Dynamic Walking • At significant periods during the gait the centre of gravity of the robot is outside of the area bounded by the feet that are touching the ground

  3. History • Dynamic Walking Toys • Static Walking Wind up Toys • Static Walking Robots • Dynamic Walking Robots

  4. Research Labs • MIT AI Lab • Waseda University • HanYang University • Honda Labs • Sony Labs

  5. The Walking Problem • Design a gait sequence in joint space • Provide sensors and actuators at joints • Implement a PID controller at each joint • Command the PID controllers to follow gait sequence

  6. Challenges • Designing gaits that don’t violate the maximum torque available • PID controller will not be able to generate the large torque until the error between the gait and actual joint angle becomes too large. • Gait design is a time consuming process that is difficult to implement online in real time

  7. Raibert’s One Legged Robot • One Legged • Hopping/Running • Simple Dynamic Model

  8. Leg Lab’s Spring Flamingo • Planar biped robot • Linear actuators • Inverted knees • Toe Lift off

  9. Leg Lab’s M2 • 3D biped • Linear actuators

  10. Waseda’s • Early 3D biped

  11. KAIST’s • DC motors • Servomotors • Onboard camera

  12. Singapore Polytechnics Roboerectus • Servomotors • Gait defines servomotor setpoints

  13. Honda’s Asimo & P3 • Commercial humanoid • Well defined tasks • General Intelligence required

  14. Sony’s BP • Entertainment Robot • Commodity Structure • Stereo vision

  15. Designing Gaits • Controlling Balance • when standing, “not required” when walking • Controlling Speed • change step size (swing leg must keep up) • Controlling Height • used to control speed and energy efficiency • Generate intermediate joint angles based on these constraints

  16. Biped Robot Simulators • Kinematic Simulators • for gait design • Dynamic Simulators • for control system testing • Yobotics Simulation Construction Set • dynamic simulation of linked mechanisms