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BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS PowerPoint Presentation
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BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS

BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS

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BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS

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  1. BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS by Don L. F. Nilsen 8

  2. LIN 516 CARDS • Your name (first name first) • LIN 516 • Fall, 2009 • Local address & zip • Permanent Address & zip • Non-ASU e-mail • Languages you’ve studied • 1st six years of life: State or Country • Tentative title of research paper (see next slide) 8

  3. LIN 516 Research Paper Must Deal with Sophisticated Discourse 8

  4. Some Research-Paper Guidelines The The Impotence of Proofreading (Taylor Mali): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OonDPGwAyfQ&feature=search Victor Borge Phonetic Punctuation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lF4qii8S3gw&feature=search 8

  5. WORD-ATTACK SKILLS: Analysis vs. Synthesis: Parsing vs. Generative Grammar Denotation vs. Connotation: Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views of “abortion” Systematic vs. Accidental Gaps: “schplick” vs. “blick” 8

  6. LEVELS OF ADEQUACY: Prescriptive Adequacy: What people should do Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, and Predictions Evaluative Adequacy: Based on Elegance Simplicity Completeness Internal Consistency Generative Power 8

  7. SURFACE STRUCTURE: Syntax Allotag Tagmeme Morphology Allomorph Morpheme Graphology Allograph Grapheme Phonology Allophone Phoneme 8

  8. DEEP STRUCTURE: Pragmatics Allobehavior Behavioreme Pragmatics (Context, Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, Conversational Implicatures, Intent, Felicity Conditions) Semantics Alloseme Sememe 8

  9. !LANGUAGE VARIATION SPEAKING, PARLANT, VARIES: V-Vocational Differences A-Age Differences Individual Language R-Regional Differences I-Informality Differences E-Ethnic Differences S-Sex Differences 8

  10. !!FORM-MEANING CORRELATION CONTRAST SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS: Antonyms: tall vs. short Converses: buy vs. sell Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada Heteronyms: minute vs. minute Homographs: bank vs. bank Homonyms: Homographs or Homophones Homophones: too vs. two vs. to Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor Synonyms: big vs. large 8

  11. !!!WORD-LEVEL VS. SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR LEXICAL: SYNTACTIC: AMBIGUITY: Take your pick! Call me a taxi! ANOMALY: She wanted a gnepf. John me cow a gave. PARAPHRASE: William hit a policeman. Bill hit John. vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit by Bill. 8

  12. References: Clark, Virginia P., Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, eds. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark, eds. Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007. Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001. 8