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BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS. by Don L. F. Nilsen. LIN 516 CARDS. Your name (first name first) LIN 516 Fall, 2009 Local address & zip Permanent Address & zip Non-ASU e-mail Languages you’ve studied 1 st six years of life: State or Country Tentative title of research paper (see next slide).

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BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS


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basic linguistic concepts

BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS

by Don L. F. Nilsen

8

lin 516 cards
LIN 516 CARDS
  • Your name (first name first)
  • LIN 516
  • Fall, 2009
  • Local address & zip
  • Permanent Address & zip
  • Non-ASU e-mail
  • Languages you’ve studied
  • 1st six years of life: State or Country
  • Tentative title of research paper (see next slide)

8

some research paper guidelines
Some Research-Paper Guidelines

The The Impotence of Proofreading (Taylor Mali):

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OonDPGwAyfQ&feature=search

Victor Borge Phonetic Punctuation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lF4qii8S3gw&feature=search

8

slide5

WORD-ATTACK SKILLS:

Analysis vs. Synthesis:

Parsing vs. Generative Grammar

Denotation vs. Connotation:

Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views of “abortion”

Systematic vs. Accidental Gaps:

“schplick” vs. “blick”

8

slide6

LEVELS OF ADEQUACY:

Prescriptive Adequacy: What people should do

Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do

Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, and Predictions

Evaluative Adequacy: Based on Elegance

Simplicity

Completeness

Internal Consistency

Generative Power

8

slide7

SURFACE STRUCTURE:

Syntax Allotag Tagmeme

Morphology Allomorph Morpheme

Graphology Allograph Grapheme

Phonology Allophone Phoneme

8

slide8

DEEP STRUCTURE:

Pragmatics Allobehavior Behavioreme

Pragmatics (Context, Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, Conversational Implicatures, Intent, Felicity Conditions)

Semantics Alloseme Sememe

8

slide9

!LANGUAGE VARIATION

SPEAKING, PARLANT, VARIES:

V-Vocational Differences

A-Age Differences

Individual

Language

R-Regional Differences

I-Informality Differences

E-Ethnic Differences

S-Sex Differences

8

slide10

!!FORM-MEANING CORRELATION

CONTRAST SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS:

Antonyms: tall vs. short

Converses: buy vs. sell

Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada

Heteronyms: minute vs. minute

Homographs: bank vs. bank

Homonyms: Homographs or Homophones

Homophones: too vs. two vs. to

Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor

Synonyms: big vs. large

8

slide11

!!!WORD-LEVEL VS. SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR

LEXICAL: SYNTACTIC:

AMBIGUITY: Take your pick! Call me a taxi!

ANOMALY: She wanted a gnepf. John me cow a gave.

PARAPHRASE: William hit a policeman. Bill hit John.

vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit by Bill.

8

slide12
References:

Clark, Virginia P., Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, eds. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark, eds. Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009.

Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.

Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.

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