BASIC LINGUISTIC CONCEPTS. by Don L. F. Nilsen. LIN 516 CARDS. Your name (first name first) LIN 516 Fall, 2009 Local address & zip Permanent Address & zip Non-ASU e-mail Languages you’ve studied 1 st six years of life: State or Country Tentative title of research paper (see next slide).
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by Don L. F. Nilsen
The The Impotence of Proofreading (Taylor Mali):
Victor Borge Phonetic Punctuation
WORD-ATTACK SKILLS: Discourse
Analysis vs. Synthesis:
Parsing vs. Generative Grammar
Denotation vs. Connotation:
Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views of “abortion”
Systematic vs. Accidental Gaps:
“schplick” vs. “blick”
LEVELS OF ADEQUACY: Discourse
Prescriptive Adequacy: What people should do
Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do
Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, and Predictions
Evaluative Adequacy: Based on Elegance
SURFACE STRUCTURE: Discourse
Syntax Allotag Tagmeme
Morphology Allomorph Morpheme
Graphology Allograph Grapheme
Phonology Allophone Phoneme
DEEP STRUCTURE: Discourse
Pragmatics Allobehavior Behavioreme
Pragmatics (Context, Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, Conversational Implicatures, Intent, Felicity Conditions)
Semantics Alloseme Sememe
!LANGUAGE VARIATION Discourse
SPEAKING, PARLANT, VARIES:
!!FORM-MEANING CORRELATION Discourse
CONTRAST SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS:
Antonyms: tall vs. short
Converses: buy vs. sell
Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada
Heteronyms: minute vs. minute
Homographs: bank vs. bank
Homonyms: Homographs or Homophones
Homophones: too vs. two vs. to
Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor
Synonyms: big vs. large
!!!WORD-LEVEL VS. SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR Discourse
AMBIGUITY: Take your pick! Call me a taxi!
ANOMALY: She wanted a gnepf. John me cow a gave.
PARAPHRASE: William hit a policeman. Bill hit John.
vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit by Bill.
Clark, Virginia P., Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Rosa, eds. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark, eds. Language Awareness: Readings for College Writers, 10th Edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2009.
Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2007.
Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics: An Introduction, 2nd Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2001.