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WAN Connection Types. Point-to-Point connection No setup before transmission Up to 45Mbs . Setup before transmission Dial-up modems or ISDN Low bandwidth . Share bandwidth Frame Relay and X.25 56Kbps to 2.048Mps . High-Level Data-Link Control Protocol .

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wan connection types
WAN Networking ProtocolsWAN Connection Types
  • Point-to-Point connection
  • No setup before transmission
  • Up to 45Mbs
  • Setup before transmission
  • Dial-up modems or ISDN
  • Low bandwidth
  • Share bandwidth
  • Frame Relay and X.25
  • 56Kbps to 2.048Mps
high level data link control protocol
WAN Networking ProtocolsHigh-Level Data-Link Control Protocol
  • HDLC specifies an encapsulation method for data on synchronous serial data links using frame characters and checksums.
  • Default encapsulation used by CISCO.
  • Everyone has its own proprietary HDLC.
  • If your are connecting a CISCO router with another type router, you must specify an encapsulation type (protocol).
WAN Networking ProtocolsPPP
  • PPP is an Internet standard protocol to provide point-to-point, router-to-router, and host-to-host connections.
  • It supports network layer protocols
    • IP
    • Novell IPX
    • Apple Talk
  • It can be used over several different physical interfaces
    • Asynchronous serial
    • ISDN synchronous serial
    • High-speed Serial Interface
establishing ppp communication
WAN Networking ProtocolsEstablishing PPP Communication
  • Communication process is established in three steps:
    • Link Establishment
    • Authentication
      • Password Authentication (PAP)
      • Challenge Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
    • Network Layer Protocol negotiation
link establishment and lcp
WAN Networking ProtocolsLink Establishment and LCP
  • Link Control Protocol (LCP) is responsible to configure and test the link.
  • LCP packets can contain many different pieces of information such as:
    • Authentication
    • Link Quality Monitoring and Magic Number
    • Compression
frame relay
WAN Networking ProtocolsFrame Relay

CSU/DSU (channel service unit/

digital service unit)

  • Frame Relay provides connection-oriented, Data Link layer communication via virtual circuits.
  • ANSI defines Frame Relay as a connection between the data terminal equipment (DTE) and the data communication equipment (DCE) over high speed digital medium.
  • CSU/DSU is located at customer location and used for encoding, filtering, and translating communication to and from the digital line.
frame relay8
WAN Networking ProtocolsFrame Relay
  • Supports many protocols, IP, Novell IPX, Decnet, AppleTalk, ....
  • Efficient and fast (56Kps to 44.736Mbps) since it does not perform error checking.
  • Uses both permanent virtual circuits (PVC) and switched virtual circuits (SPC).
  • Virtual circuits are maintained by a software and multiplexed on onto physical channels.
data link connection identifiers dlci
WAN Networking ProtocolsData Link Connection Identifiers (DLCI)
  • Frame Relay virtual circuits are identified by DLCIs.
  • IP address need to be mapped DLCI
WAN Networking ProtocolsSubinterfaces
  • You can have multiple virtual circuits on a single interface and treat each one as a separate interface.

R(config)>interface s0

R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay [ietf]

R(config-if)>int s0.16 point-to-point (or multipoint)

mapping frame relay
WAN Networking ProtocolsMapping Frame Relay

Manual Mapping

R(config)>interface s0

R(config-if)>encapsulation frame-relay

R(config-if)>int s0.16 multipoint

R(config-subif)>no inverse-arp

R(config-subif)>ip address

R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 16 ietf broadcast

R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 17 broadcast

R(config-subif)>frame-relay map 18

Using Reverse-ARP

R(config)>interface s0.16

R(config-subif)>encapsulation frame-relay ietf

R(config-subif)>ip address

integrated services digital network isdn
WAN Networking ProtocolsIntegrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
  • ISDN is a digital service designed to run over existing telephone networks.
  • ISDN supports both voice, video, and data
  • Call setup is faster than with a modem.
  • Data rates are faster than one modem connection.
isnd terminals
WAN Networking ProtocolsISND Terminals
  • Terminal adapter: A converter device that allows non-ISDN devices to operate on an ISDN network.
  • Terminal Equipment 1 (TE1): A device that supports ISDN standards.
  • Terminal Equipment 2 (TE2): A non-ISDN device.
  • Network Termination 1 (NT1): A device that is attached to ISND BRI lines to provide power. It also terminates the 2-wire connection from CO and connects to the 4-wire customer network.
  • Network Termination 2 (NT2): A provider equipment.
reference points
WAN Networking ProtocolsReference Points
  • U
    • The U-interface is the actual two-wire cable which connects the customer’s equipment to the telecommunications provider
  • R
    • The R-interface is the wire or circuit that connects TE2 to the TA
  • S
    • TheS-interface is a four-wire cable from TE1 or TA to the NT1 or NT2
  • T
    • The point between NT1 and NT2, which is also called the T-interface
  • S/T
isdn switch types
WAN Networking ProtocolsISDN Switch Types
  • Interfaces
    • Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
    • Primary Rate (Interface)
  • Potential Switch Types To Be Obtained from ISDN Providers
    • basic-5ess, basic-dms100, basic-ni,....
  • Service Profile Identifiers (SPIDs)
    • Reference number assigned to ISDN channels
      • Functions like a phone number
    • Frequently referred to as ISDN phone numbers
    • Most modern ISDN systems now have a feature called AutoSPID