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The Last Day of Bluebooking. Citation Signals BLUEBOOK RULE 1.2. Citation Signals can be a short form of case citation. They also indicate the purpose for which a source is cited. No signal indicates that the citation is authority for the proposition of law stated.

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citation signals bluebook rule 1 2
Citation Signals BLUEBOOK RULE 1.2
  • Citation Signals can be a short form of case citation. They also indicate the purpose for which a source is cited.
  • No signal indicates that the citation is authority for the proposition of law stated.
the form of citation signals
The Form of Citation Signals
  • Signals are always underscored or italicized when they appear in citation sentences. (P1(c)).
  • There are supportive, comparative, contradictory, and background signals. Rule 1.3. (See, see also, compare …with, etc.)
citations indicating support
Citations IndicatingSupport
  • “See” indicates support and should be used if the proposition o f law obviously flows from the source.
  • States have required defendants to prove both insanity and self-defense.SeeState v. Caryl, 543 P.2d 389, 390 (Mont. 1975); State v. Hinson, 172 S.E.2d 548, 551 (S.C. 1970).
citations indicating support5
Citations Indicating Support
  • “See also” is used for an additional source which supports the proposition and where the sources which directly state or support the proposition have already been discussed. A parenthetical should explain the relevance of the source.
  • It was clear from all the following cases that a kitchen tool is not a dangerous instrument.. See also, Ronko v. Bond, 9 F.3d 2, 9 (2d Cir. 1993) (Salad shooter held not to be a dangerous instrument).
quotations rule 5 1
Quotations; Rule 5.1
  • Heavy reliance on quotations is often a sign of inadequate analysis. You may be able to put the idea in your own words more effectivelyand efficiently.
  • You should notquote a court’s description of the facts.
longer quotations
Longer Quotations
  • Quotations of fifty ormore words should be indented left and rightwithout quotation marks.
  • Important statutes or restatement sections should also be “block quoted.”
quotations
Quotations
  • The citation for the block quote should not be indented but should begin at the left margin of the line immediately following the quotation (see page 44 of the bluebook).
  • Quotations of forty-nine or fewer words should be enclosed in quotation marks but not set off from the text. Use single marks for a quotation within a quotation.
punctuation in quotations
Punctuation in Quotations
  • Always place commas and periods inside the quotation marks.
  • Place other punctuation marks inside the quotation marks only if they are part of the matter quoted. Semicolons and colons otherwise go outsidequotation marks.
alterations in the text rule 5 211
Alterations in the Text;Rule 5.2
  • When a letter must be changed from upper to lower case, or vice versa, enclose it in [brackets]. Substituted words or letters should also be bracketed .
  • “[P]ublic confidence in the[adversary] system depends upon disclosure.”
alterations in the text rule 5 212
Alterations in the Text;Rule 5.2
  • Indicate in a parenthetical clause after the citation any change of emphasis or omission of citations.
  • “The section applies to non consumers as well.” Fuller v. Jones, 99 So. 2d 74, 88 (Ala. 1988)(emphasis added).
omissions in text rule 5 314
Omissions in Text;Rule 5.3
  • When using quoted language as a phrase or clause, don’t indicate the omission.
  • Extreme and outrageous conduct is “utterly intolerable in a civilized society.” (Citation omitted).
omissions in text rule 5 315
Omissions in Text;Rule 5.3
  • When quoting language as a full sentence, omission of words is indicated by the insertion of an ellipsis, three periods separated by spaces and set off by a space before and after.
  • “Liability in such a case as this one depends upon . . . getting caught.” Seymour v. Butts, 106 So. 2d 175, 178 (Ala. 1980).
omissions in text rule 5 316
Omissions in Text;Rule 5.3
  • When quoting language as a full sentence, ellipses should never be used to begin a quotation. Capitalize and bracket the first letter if it is not already capitalized.
  • “[T]here is no duty to protect another person from the violent propensities of a third person.” (Citation omitted).
omissions in text rule 5 317
Omissions in Text;Rule 5.3
  • When quoting language as a full sentence, omission of the language at the end of a quoted sentence should be indicated by an ellipsis between the last word quoted and the final punctuation of the sentence quoted.
  • “Never count your chickens . . . .”
writing style tips

Writing Style Tips

1) Be clear and concise.

2) Use the active voice.

3) Avoid mangled modifiers.

4) Use proper punctuation.

writing style tip 1
Writing Style Tip #1

Write simply-Be Clear andConcise.

be clear and concise by avoiding litter words
Be clear and concise by avoiding litter words

You can make your writingmore concise by eliminatinglitter words, which areunnecessary prepositions,articles orother small words.

litter words
Litter Words

Question every “of”

This type of obligation= this obligation

This court of appeals=the appellate court

Typically you can delete these:

The amount of the existence of

The case of the presence of

The concept of the extent,degree of

litter words22
Litter Words

Watch for other prepositions:

In the event of=if

For the purpose of=of

At this point in time=now

Previous to=before

In order to=to

For the reason that=because

In the nature of=like

clarity and conciseness 1
Clarity and Conciseness #1

The company's failure to purchase insurance breached the dismantling contract by failing to comply with the obligation imposed by paragraph G.

The company’s failure to purchase insurance breached the dismantling contract by failing to comply with paragraph G’s obligation.

clarity and conciseness 2
Clarity and Conciseness #2

The commission went on to conclude that the plaintiff should not have been in court at all.

The commission concluded that the plaintiff should not have been in court.

clarity and conciseness 3
Clarity and Conciseness #3

The purpose of this brief will be to examine the Equal Rights Amendment as a positive defense in an employment discrimination case.

This brief examines the Equal Rights Amendment as a positive defense in an employment discrimination case.

clarity and conciseness 4
Clarity and Conciseness #4

Our client, Jones, will argue that the sales price would have been taxable whether or not the book was sold directly to the vendors or the end consumer.

The sales price would have been taxable whether or not the book was sold directly to the vendors or the end consumer.

writing style tip 2
Writing Style Tip #2

Use the Active Voice

identifying active voice
Identifying Active Voice

Active voice

  • The subject of the sentence is doing the action described by the verb.

Example:

  • The judge overruled the objection.
identifying active voice29
Identifying Active Voice

Active voice

  • The subject of the sentence is doing the action described by the verb.

Example

  • The judge overruled the objection.
  • (subject)
identifying active voice30
Identifying Active Voice

Active voice

  • The subject of the sentence is doing the action described by the verb.

Example

  • The judge overruled the objection.
  • (subject)  (verb)
identifying active voice31
Identifying Active Voice

Active voice

  • The subject of the sentence is doing the action described by the verb.

Example

  • The judge overruled the objection.
  • (subject)  (verb)  (direct object)
identifying active voice32
Identifying Active Voice

Passive voice

  • The subject of the sentence is having the action of the verb done to it.

Example

  • The objection was overruled by the judge.
identifying active voice33
Identifying Active Voice

Passive voice

  • The subject of the sentence is having the action of the verb done to it.

Example

  • The objection was overruled by the judge.
  • (subject)
identifying active voice34
Identifying Active Voice

Passive voice

  • The subject of the sentence is having the action of the verb done to it.

Example

  • The objection was overruled by the judge.
  • (subject)  (verb)
why active voice is preferred
Why Active Voice Is Preferred

It is more concise.

It uses a more vigorous verb.

Examples:

The plaintiffs filed a complaint in the superior court.

A complaint was filed by the plaintiffs in superior court.

(The auxiliary verb “was” and the preposition “by” dilute the energy of “filed.”)

why active voice is preferred36
Why Active Voice Is Preferred

Active voice also allows information to be processed more readily.

Which can you process faster?

  • The deposition must be offered into evidence by the defendant’s attorney.
  • OR
  • The defendant’s attorney must offer the deposition into evidence.
effective use of passive voice
Effective Use of Passive Voice

1. Where the agent is unknown

  • (agent =person or thing performing the action)

Example:

A portion of the tape was erased.

effective use of passive voice38
Effective Use of Passive Voice

2. To purposely obscure agency.

Example:

Toxic fumes were ventilated out of the plant between 2:00 and 3:00 a.m.

effective use of passive voice39
Effective Use of Passive Voice

3.To emphasize the deed, rather than the doer.

Examples:

A cure for Alzheimer’s disease has been found.

All four defendants were convicted of first degree murder.

rewrite these sentences in the active voice
Rewrite these sentences in the active voice.

1. The idea that to prevent the dumping of toxic waste was intended by the legislature was focused on by the Montana court.

The Montana court focused on the idea that the legislature intended to prevent the dumping of toxic waste.

rewrite these sentences in the active voice41
Rewrite these sentences in the active voice.

2. Important particularities are stated in the fourth amendment: the place to be searched and the things to be seized must be stated in the warrant.

The fourth amendment stipulates important particularities: the warrant must state the place to be searched and the things to be seized.

rewrite these sentences in the active voice42
Rewrite these sentences in the active voice.

3. A lawful business will not be enjoined without a clear showing that it is impossible or impractical to eliminate its offensive features.

EFFECTIVE USE?

Doer is not as important as the deed if you are explaining “injunctions.”

rewrite these sentences in the active voice43
Rewrite these sentences in the active voice.

4. For the next ten years, the easement was used by all the landowners.

For the next ten years, all the landowners used the easement.

Effective Use?

It depends. Effective if use of the easement is important and the landowners are not. Otherwise, active voice is more concise.

nominalizations
Nominalizations

Nominalization is the practice of changing verbsto nouns and as a result burying the real action of the sentence into thenoun (rather than the verb).

nominalizations45
Nominalizations

Like the use of passive voice, the practice of nominalization tends to make writing wordy and lifeless.

Example (compare the verbs):

Our case is an illustration of this point.

Revised

Our case illustrates this point.

nominalizations46
Nominalizations

Consider these examples:

Reached an agreement= agreed

Made a statement= stated

Perform a review= review

Make a recommendation= recommend

Supports an inference= infers

Made the assumption= assumed

re write the following sentences
Re-write the following sentences

The police conducted an investigation into the matter.

The police investigated the matter.

re write the following sentences48
Re-write the following sentences

The court found the landlord in violation of the statute.

The court found the landlord violated the statute.

re write the following sentences49
Re-write the following sentences

We are in agreement with your argument but if it is your intention to cause delay, we will stand in opposition to your motion.

We agree with your argument but if you intend to cause delay, we will oppose your motion.

writing style tip 3
Writing Style Tip #3

Don’t mangle

your modifiers

mangled modifiers
MANGLED MODIFIERS
  • THREE TYPES
  • Misplaced modifiers
  • Dangling modifiers
  • Squinting modifiers
misplaced modifiers
MISPLACED MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Keep modifiers close to the word or words they modify.
  • Frequent offenders:
  • almost, also, even, ever, exactly, hardly, just, merely, nearly, not, only, scarcely, simply
misplaced modifiers53
MISPLACED MODIFIERS
  • Example:
  • In Smith v. Jones, using land thirteen feet west of their boundary, a patio was built by the claimants.
misplaced modifiers54
MISPLACED MODIFIERS
  • Example:
  • In Smith v. Jones, using land thirteen feet west of their boundary, a patio was built by the claimants.
misplaced modifiers55
MISPLACED MODIFIERS
  • Example:
  • In Smith v.Jones, using land thirteen feet west of their boundary, the claimants built a patio.
dangling modifiers
DANGLING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not leave your modifier “dangling”--without a noun in the sentence to modify.
  • Example:
  • Looking at Winfield’s acts alone, it would seem that his claim to the property was hostile.
dangling modifiers57
DANGLING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not leave your modifier “dangling”--without a noun in the sentence to modify.
  • Example:
  • Looking at Winfield’s acts alone, it would seem that his claim to the property was hostile.
dangling modifiers58
DANGLING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not leave your modifier “dangling”--without a noun in the sentence to modify.
  • Example:
  • Looking at Winfield’s acts alone, the court may find that his claim to the property was hostile.
squinting modifiers
SQUINTING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not place your modifier where it would appear to modify both the term that precedes it and the term that follows it.
  • Example:
  • Since the bathhouse’s completion, the Winfields have used it and the surrounding land both during the summer and winter.
squinting modifiers60
SQUINTING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not place your modifier where it would appear to modify both the term that precedes it and the term that follows it.
  • Example:
  • Since the bathhouse’s completion, the Winfields have used it and the surrounding landbothduring the summer and winter.
squinting modifiers61
SQUINTING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not place your modifier where it would appear to modify both the term that precedes it and the term that follows it.
  • Example:
  • Since the bathhouse’s completion, the Winfields have used both it and the surrounding land during the summer and winter.
squinting modifiers62
SQUINTING MODIFIERS
  • Rule: Do not place your modifier where it would appear to modify both the term that precedes it and the term that follows it.
  • Example:
  • Since the bathhouse’s completion, the Winfields have used it and the surrounding land during both the summer and winter.
rewrite the following sentences
Rewrite the following sentences

1. For sale: Piano by man going to Europe with carved legs.

rewrite the following sentences64
Rewrite the following sentences

2. Jonathan is vice president of a computer corporation in Chicago earning approximately $800,000 a year.

rewrite the following sentences65
Rewrite the following sentences

3. My client has discussed your proposal to fill the drainage ditch with his partners.

writing style tip 4
Writing Style Tip #4

Use Proper Punctuation:

See Hand-outs

bluebook champions
Bluebook Champions

Section E “The Enforcers”

Section F “Hot Mommas”