The Last Day of Bluebooking. Citation Signals BLUEBOOK RULE 1.2. Citation Signals can be a short form of case citation. They also indicate the purpose for which a source is cited. No signal indicates that the citation is authority for the proposition of law stated.
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1) Be clear and concise.
2) Use the active voice.
3) Avoid mangled modifiers.
4) Use proper punctuation.
Write simply-Be Clear andConcise.
You can make your writingmore concise by eliminatinglitter words, which areunnecessary prepositions,articles orother small words.
Question every “of”
This type of obligation= this obligation
This court of appeals=the appellate court
Typically you can delete these:
The amount of the existence of
The case of the presence of
The concept of the extent,degree of
Watch for other prepositions:
In the event of=if
For the purpose of=of
At this point in time=now
In order to=to
For the reason that=because
In the nature of=like
The company's failure to purchase insurance breached the dismantling contract by failing to comply with the obligation imposed by paragraph G.
The company’s failure to purchase insurance breached the dismantling contract by failing to comply with paragraph G’s obligation.
The commission went on to conclude that the plaintiff should not have been in court at all.
The commission concluded that the plaintiff should not have been in court.
The purpose of this brief will be to examine the Equal Rights Amendment as a positive defense in an employment discrimination case.
This brief examines the Equal Rights Amendment as a positive defense in an employment discrimination case.
Our client, Jones, will argue that the sales price would have been taxable whether or not the book was sold directly to the vendors or the end consumer.
The sales price would have been taxable whether or not the book was sold directly to the vendors or the end consumer.
Use the Active Voice
It is more concise.
It uses a more vigorous verb.
The plaintiffs filed a complaint in the superior court.
A complaint was filed by the plaintiffs in superior court.
(The auxiliary verb “was” and the preposition “by” dilute the energy of “filed.”)
Active voice also allows information to be processed more readily.
Which can you process faster?
1. Where the agent is unknown
A portion of the tape was erased.
2. To purposely obscure agency.
Toxic fumes were ventilated out of the plant between 2:00 and 3:00 a.m.
3.To emphasize the deed, rather than the doer.
A cure for Alzheimer’s disease has been found.
All four defendants were convicted of first degree murder.
1. The idea that to prevent the dumping of toxic waste was intended by the legislature was focused on by the Montana court.
The Montana court focused on the idea that the legislature intended to prevent the dumping of toxic waste.
2. Important particularities are stated in the fourth amendment: the place to be searched and the things to be seized must be stated in the warrant.
The fourth amendment stipulates important particularities: the warrant must state the place to be searched and the things to be seized.
3. A lawful business will not be enjoined without a clear showing that it is impossible or impractical to eliminate its offensive features.
Doer is not as important as the deed if you are explaining “injunctions.”
4. For the next ten years, the easement was used by all the landowners.
For the next ten years, all the landowners used the easement.
It depends. Effective if use of the easement is important and the landowners are not. Otherwise, active voice is more concise.
Nominalization is the practice of changing verbsto nouns and as a result burying the real action of the sentence into thenoun (rather than the verb).
Like the use of passive voice, the practice of nominalization tends to make writing wordy and lifeless.
Example (compare the verbs):
Our case is an illustration of this point.
Our case illustrates this point.
Consider these examples:
Reached an agreement= agreed
Made a statement= stated
Perform a review= review
Make a recommendation= recommend
Supports an inference= infers
Made the assumption= assumed
The police conducted an investigation into the matter.
The police investigated the matter.
The court found the landlord in violation of the statute.
The court found the landlord violated the statute.
We are in agreement with your argument but if it is your intention to cause delay, we will stand in opposition to your motion.
We agree with your argument but if you intend to cause delay, we will oppose your motion.
1. For sale: Piano by man going to Europe with carved legs.
2. Jonathan is vice president of a computer corporation in Chicago earning approximately $800,000 a year.
3. My client has discussed your proposal to fill the drainage ditch with his partners.
Use Proper Punctuation:
Section E “The Enforcers”
Section F “Hot Mommas”