Here’s a fun (but maybe scary) thought experiment: STARTING FROM NATURE • NUCLEAR WAR ? • RUN OUT OF PETROLEUM ? WHAT IF WE LOST OUR INDUSTRY ? …. COULD WE START AGAIN ? Can chemicals be obtained from natural sources?
Where do we get starting materials ? TODAY WE GET THEM FROM PETROLEUM R-H Refineries convert crude petroleum to a wide variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics. R2C=CR2 Chemical feedstock industries convert these hydrocarbons into chlorinated hydrocarbons (free radical chlorination) and alcohols . R-Cl R-OH Most of the simple alcohols and halides can be obtained commercially from chemical suppliers. What if we run out of petroleum or our industries fail?
HERE ARE SOME NATURAL SOURCES OF IMPORTANT CHEMICALS …….
C a C O C a O + C O 3 2 C a O + 2 C C a C + C O 2 C a ( O H ) C a C H O + + 2 2 2 2 H C C H LIMESTONE COULD BE A SOURCE OF CARBON Acetylene from limestone Lime Kilns high temp oven Limestone Rock D STEP ONE Heat to remove CO2 calcium carbonate calcium oxide (Quicklime) STEP TWO D Add charcoal and heat again calcium carbide lime STEP THREE Add water to calcium carbide a source of carbon atoms acetylene
Starting From Nature (Alcohols) (using renewable sources) soft wood trees just heat the wood, no solvent distill methanol (wood alcohol) corn, rice, potatoes ethanol Generally used for drinking. Could be used to fuel cars or as a source of carbon atoms.
STARTING FROM NATURE (Bases) NaOH KOH LYE in H2O burn BIRCH ALDER ASHES H2O ashes contain sodium and potassium oxides extract with water softwood trees Na2O, K2O Urea animals NaOH NH3 Ammonia or bacteria
STARTING FROM NATURE (Acids) old silver mines (tailings) volcano Pb burn ( Pb is a catalyst without it only SO2 forms ) O2 O2 + Sulfuric Acid ocean salt Hydrochloric Acid strong acid + + Chlorine oxidation or electrolysis
Phosphorous Trichloride and Thionyl Chloride There are also mineral sources. animals evaporate water distill residue P URINE after standing 2 wks (bacterial action) Phosphorous Phosphorous Trichloride P + Cl2 PCl3 S + Cl2 S2Cl2 SO3 + S2Cl2 SOCl2 + SO2 + S Thionyl Chloride