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Social Order(s) HUM 2052: Civilization II Spring 2009 Dr. Perdigao February 25, 2009 Liberalism Roots in John Locke (17 th century) and Enlightenment philosophy (18 th century)

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social order s

Social Order(s)

HUM 2052: Civilization II

Spring 2009

Dr. Perdigao

February 25, 2009


Roots in John Locke (17th century) and Enlightenment philosophy (18th century)

Constitutional guarantees of personal liberty and free trade in economics, leading to social improvement and economic growth

Support of Industrial Revolution but opposing violence and state power promoted by French Revolution

Middle class—manufacturers, merchants, professionals support liberalism

(MW: 674)


Following liberalism

“liberties advocated by liberals benefited only the middle class—the owners of factories and businesses—not the workers” (MW: 675)

Sought to reorganize society

Critique of Industrial Revolution for creating two classes: new middle class (capitalists who own the wealth) and working class

Robert Owen—Welsh—factory town in Scotland, then Indiana (New Harmony, 1920s) (Florida?)

Emancipation of women

(MW: 675-676)

collectivists and communists
Collectivists and Communists

Socialists after 1840

“emphasizing their desire to replace private property by communal, collective ownership” (676)

Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895)

Communist League, 1848 Communist Manifesto

“capitalist free enterprise system that had created the crystal palace was now on the verge of collapse and would soon be overturned by the very class of laborers it had created to meet industrial demands” (1369)

Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat

Bourgeoisie (capitalist)

Proletariat (working class)

Embrace industrialization to bring about proletarian revolution and “abolition of exploitation, private property, and class society” (676)

rise of marxism
Rise of Marxism

Unions after 1848, continuing revolutionary spirit

Anarchism as destruction of state power because “the existence of the state was the root of social injustice” (MW: 713)

Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876)

Marx: political theorist and labor organizer

Scientific theory (like Darwin?): mathematical calculations of production and profit (MW: 713)

Das Kapital

Returns to John Locke (another influential text for Frankenstein) “that human existence was defined by the necessity to work to fulfill basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter” (MW: 713).

the road to revolution
The Road to Revolution

Materialism as class relationships developed around work the “mode of production”

Feudalism (serf and medieval lord); slavery (slave and master); capitalism (worker [proletariat] and capitalist)

Rather than emphasize individual rights, he focuses on “unequal class relations” (MW: 713) and discarding the “romantic views of the Utopian socialists” to focus on struggle as means to bring change

Marx “rejected the liberal Enlightenment view that society was basically harmonious, maintaining instead that social progress could occur only through conflict” (714)

defining the revolution
Defining the Revolution

From “Revolutionary Principles” (1369-1370):

Change in assumptions in science, philosophy, the structure of society, human identity

Nietzsche’s argument that Western culture is in decline—moral decay of society and loss of individual freedom

Marx and Engels—cultural decline—problems in capitalist free society that produced the Crystal Palace was falling apart and would be overturned, foreseeing revolutions in their times

“Revolutions of the mind”: challenging accepted ideas in science, philosophy, and society

The “woman question” answered best in theory or in salons, their place in history

After Newton, questions of God’s role in world, Darwin’s theories in relation to that center, creationism

limits of civilization
Limits of Civilization

“the epidemic of over production” that leads society into “momentary

barbarism” (return to Montaigne?)

“Because there is too much civilisation, too much means of subsistence, too

much industry, too much commerce. The productive forces at the disposal of

society no longer tend to further the development of the conditions of

bourgeois property; on the contrary, they have become too powerful for these

conditions, by which they are fettered, and so soon as they overcome these

fetters, they bring disorder into the whole of bourgeois society . . .” (1386).