sexual reproduction in human beings l.
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Sexual reproduction in Human beings. Learning outcomes. Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system and give the functions of testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis

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learning outcomes
Learning outcomes
  • Identify on diagrams of the male reproductive system and give the functions of testes, scrotum, sperm ducts, prostate gland, urethra and penis
  • Identify on diagrams of the female reproductive system and give the functions of ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix and vagina
  • Compare male and female gametes in terms of size, numbers and mobility
  • Describe the menstrual cycle with reference to the alternation of menstruation and ovulation, the natural variation in its length, and the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle
learning outcomes3
Learning outcomes:
  • Describe fertilisation and early development of the zygote simply in terms of the formation of ball of cells which becomes implanted in the wall of uterus
the male reproductive system
The male reproductive system
  • Testes (testis)
  • Organ that produce the gametes and male sex hormone (testosterone)
  • The testis constantly divide to produce up to 100,000,000 sperms per day.
  • The testis work more efficiently at just below body temperature, so they are held outside the body in scrotum.
the male reproductive system6
The male reproductive system
  • Storage duct/ epididymis
  • Sperms are stored in the storage duct temporarily in an inactive form before it enters the sperm duct.
the male reproductive system7
The male reproductive system
  • Sperm ducts/ Vas deferens
  • Tubes which carry the sperm away from the testes
the male reproductive system8
The male reproductive system
  • Seminal vesicle/ Prostate gland
  • Is about the size of the golf ball
  • It adds a nutrient fluid and enzyme (seminal fluid) in which it activates the sperms to swim
  • Sperms + seminal fluid = semen
the male reproductive system9
The male reproductive system
  • Urethra
  • The urethra is a tube that carries both urine and semen along the penis to be released from the body but at different times.
the male reproductive system10
The male reproductive system
  • Penis
  • It is an organ for introducing sperms into the female. It contains spongy tissue which fills with blood to make the penis firm (an erection).
quick check

State the functions of:



Sperm ducts

Prostate gland



the female reproductive system
The female reproductive system
  • Ovaries
  • Female gonads
  • Making and releasing the female gametes
  • The female releases one ovum every four weeks
the female reproductive system14
The female reproductive system
  • Oviducts/ Fallopian tube
  • Are tubes which carry the ova from the ovaries
  • They are lined with cilia together with a little muscular assistance, help to move the ova gently along.
  • The egg is fertilized in the oviduct.
the female reproductive system15
The female reproductive system
  • Uterus/ Womb
  • A pear shape organ
  • The wall contain involuntary muscle
  • The embryo develops in the uterus during pregnancy
the female reproductive system16
The female reproductive system
  • Cervix
  • Cervix is the “neck” of the uterus, where the uterus joins the vagina.
the female reproductive system17
The female reproductive system
  • Vagina
  • it is part of the female system which receives the penis during the sexual intercourse
  • It is muscular and stretchable
quick check18
  • State the functions of:






checkpoint 1
Checkpoint 1:

Name the organ/ organs that carry out the function:

  • Store matured sperms
  • Carries both sperm and urine
  • Produces cells with only half the number of chromosome
  • Produces the male sex hormone
  • Receive sperm
  • Egg must be fertilised here for pregnancy to take place.
female gametes vs male gametes21
Male gametes

Released in millions

Able to move

Very small (0.05 mm)

Very little cytoplasm

Nucleus contains either an X or a Y chromosome

Female gametes

Released one per month

Unable to move by their own

Comparatively large (o.1mm in diameter)

A lot of cytoplasm which contains nourishment for the zygote if the ovum is fertilised

Nucleus always contains an X chromosome

Female gametes vs male gametes
quick check22

Compare the human male and female gametes in terms of

  • size,
  • numbers and
  • Movement

In each case, suggest reasons for the differences you describe.

menstrual cycle
Menstrual cycle
  • The average menstrual cycle is about 28 days.
  • Begins with puberty, ends with menopause.
  • Menstrual cycle is the alternation of menstruation and ovulation.
menstrual cycle25
Menstrual cycle


  • The spongy lining then peel away , damaging the blood capillaries. The lining is passes out of the vagina, together with the blood. Menstrual period. It lasts for about 5 days

Repair of uterine lining:

  • Over a period of 14 days, the walls of the female’s uterus develop a spongy lining


  • On day 14th, ovulation occurs. The ovum passes down the oviduct. If the ovum is not fertilised by sperm, it passes through the uterus and vagina and out of the vulva.

Thickening of the lining

  • Lining continues to thicken for the next 10 – 12 days before it begins to break down.
menstrual cycle26
Menstrual cycle
  • The fertile period is from day 11 to day 17, because ovulation has occurred. Ovum can survive for 2-3 days and allowing for the possible survival of sperms in the oviduct.
  • The rest of the time is considered infertile period.
factors affecting menstrual cycle
Factors affecting menstrual cycle
  • Stress
  • Unbalanced diet/ malnutrition
  • Mental fatigue
  • Illness

These factors can alter or stop the menstrual cycle

menstrual cycle28
Menstrual cycle
  • There are many developing follicles in the ovary.
  • The young follicles are called primary follicles
  • A primary follicles are matured into a mature follicle called Graafian follicle.
  • The mature follicle releases hormone oestrogen that brings about the repair and growth of the uterine lining.
  • During the ovulation, the one egg is released.
menstrual cycle30
Menstrual cycle
  • The ovary secretes progesterone after ovulation.
  • Progesterone causes the uterine lining to remain thick and soft and to become well supplied with blood vessels. This is important for preparation of the implantation of embryo.
menstrual cycle31
Menstrual cycle
  • If no fertilisation occur, progesterone continues to be secreted for about ten days.
  • Then stop producing progesterone and this will cause the onset of menstruation.


Fertilization and development of embryo

  • The egg released is surrounded by a few layers of follicle cells.
  • As the sperm swim toward the egg, it will release enzymes that digest the follicle cells. Only one sperm enters the egg.
  • The fusion of the nuclei to form the zygote is called fertilization.
  • The fertilization occurs in oviduct.
development of embryo
Development of embryo
  • The zygote passes along the oviduct to the uterus and it begins to divide by mitosis to form a ball of cells that called embryo.
  • The embryo becomes embedded in the uterine lining. This is called implantation.
development of embryo36
Development of embryo
  • The exchange of the material between the foetus and the placenta.

Page 349

development of embryo38
Development of embryo
  • The time between conception and birth is nine months.
  • The nine months is known as the gestation period.
  • At the end of the gestation period, contraction of the uterus walls causes the rupture of the amniotic sac.
  • The birth of the baby is followed by the ejection of the placenta.
thinking room
Thinking room?
  • How are identical twins come about? Why do they always - look alike and same sex?

A woman with blocked oviducts cannot have a baby in the normal way but can now have a ‘test-tube’ baby. A doctor, using a fine tube through the body wall, sucks up several eggs from the ovary, puts them in a dish and mixes them with sperm. The eggs are then kept for a few days before they are put back into the woman’s uterus via the cervix.

  • Describe what can normally happen in the oviduct.
  • Why does the doctor get the eggs from the ovary through the body wall and not through the vagina and uterus?
  • Why must the sperms be mixed with eggs before they are put back in the woman?
  • Why do you think the eggs are kept for a few days before they are put back into the uterus?
  • Why is the term ‘test-tube baby’ inaccurate?