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    1. ??????????? ???????? ???????????????? ??????. ????????? ???????? ??. ??????? ???????? ??.

    3. second fiddle (informal) 1) a) the second violin in a string quartet or one of the second violins in an orchestra b) the musical part assigned to such an instrument 2) a secondary status 3) a person who has a secondary status

    4. play second fiddle Second fiddle to Richard Scott and always has been. (A. Christie, ‘The Mysterious Mr. Quin’) — ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ??????. How painfully it had affected him with its intimation that he played but second fiddle in the life of his beloved. (J. Galsworthy, ‘Swan Song’) — ??? ?????????? ???????? ????? ????????, ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ? ????? ???????!

    5. ????? ?? ???? to bump to strike to run aground to strike aground be in low water go on the rocks

    6. The family's going on the rocks...’ ‘It's always been on the rocks,’ she said. (J. P. Marquand, ‘Thirty Years’) — ????? ?? ????. - ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????, - ??????? ???. ... he came to know which of the clients must be treated with respect and which were in low water. (W. S. Maugham, ‘Of Human Bondage’) —.. ?? ?????? ??? ????, ? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?????????? ??????????? ? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????.

    7. under smb.'s thumb 1)...You're going to be able to write. If I could just keep you under my thumb for four or five weeks I think I could make something out of you.— ...?? ????????? ??????. ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ?????, ?????, ?? ??? ?? ????? ????. 2)‘I want you to go on working for me, if you will.’ ‘You'd like to keep me under your thumb, wouldn't you?’ - ???? ?? ?? ??????????, ? ????? ??, ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ? ????. - ?? ??????, ????? ? ?????? ??? ???? ?????. ????? ?? ???? 3) She's got them so awed - so positively under her thumb - that it's - it's indecent.— ??????? ??????? ?????? ? ?????? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ? ??? ???????? ????, ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???????????.

    8. foam at the mouth ˜ «? ????? ? ???» ???????? [??????????] ? ????? ? ??? — «speak [argue] furiously/passionately». to foam at the mouth - «?????? ? ?????????, ? ??????» You'd better be careful with him this morning, he's foaming at the mouth about what happened yesterday — ?? ???? ? ??? ??????? ????????????. ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????????.

    9. to carry coal to Newcastle to set the Thames on fire to send smb to Coventry ? ??????? ??????, ? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????????.

    10. to send smb to Coventry ????????????? ????-?.; ?????????? ??????? ? ???-?.; ???????????? ????-?. [???????? ????????? ???????????????? ???????? ? ????? ?????????? (E. H. Clarendon) ‘The History of the Great Rebellion and Civil Wars in England’, ??? ???????????, ??? ?? ????? ?????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ???????? ?????????? ??????, ? ??????? ??????????? ???????? ????????]

    11. ? ??????? ??????, ? ? ????? ?????? (˜ there is no rhyme or reason in that; that is something utterly irrelevant), ?????????? ???? ???? ??????? (don't comrade me; look for comrades elsewhere), «Jones was very eloquent to persuade his master, telling him that Rome was not built in a day » - «????? ??????????? ??? ???? ???????????, ????? ??????? ?????? ???????, ?????????, ??? ? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????».

    12. ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? 1) ????????????? ????????????? ??, ???????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ????????. All that glitters is not gold. He ??? ?? ??????, ??? ???????. Strike while the iron is hot. ??? ??????, ???? ??????. New brooms sweep clean. ????? ????? ????? ?????. As a man sows, so he shall reap. ??? ???????, ?? ? ???????

    13. ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? 2) ????????????? ????????????? ??, ???????? ????? ? ?????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????, ?? ??????????? ?? ???? ???????? ??????: Too many cooks spoil the broth. ? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????. Misfortunes never come alone. ?????? ???? — ??????? ??????. As well be hanged for a sheep as for a lamb. ???? ??? — ???? ?????. ?? buy a pig in a poke. ?????? ???? ? ?????.

    14. ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? 3) ???? ???????????? ?? ?? ????? ???????????? ? ?? ? ??? ?????????? ???????? «?????? ?????????» - ????????, ??????????? ????????? ???????, ????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ??: Necessity is the mother of invention. – ????????????? – ???? ?????????????????. «?????, ?????, ????? ?? ?? ????, ????? ???? ????????» - "Jerome, Jerome, do not roam, but mind spindles at home."

    15. ??????? ???????? ???????????????? ?????? 4) ??? ?????????? ? ?? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ????????, ?????????? ??? ??????????? ????????: to dine with duke Humphry

    16. ???????????????? ??????? ????? ?.?. ??????? ?????-??????? ???????????????? ???????, 1998 (????? 20000 ??????????????) ????? ?.?. ?????-??????? ???????????????? ???????, 2002 (????? 5000 ??????????????)

    17. Richard A. Spears, Betty Kirkpatrick NTC’s Super-Mini English Dictionary Oxford Idioms Dictionary for learners of English. (> 10 ????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ?????.Oxford University Press, 2003

    18. Longman Idioms Dictionary. 2002 (>6,000 idioms) Michael McCarthy, Felicity O'Dell English Idioms in Use. 2002 ?. ?. ??????, ?. ?. ???????? English Idioms and Phrasal Verbs. ?????-??????? ??????? ????? ? ???????? ????????. 2003

    19. Cambridge International Dictionary of idioms. 1998 ?. ?. ???????? ?????-??????? ???????????????? ???????. 2000