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Industrial Robots in Radiation Fields Herschel B. Smartt, Ph.D. July 1, 2004 Industrial Robots in Radiation Fields What problem do we want to solve? Examples industrial robots Robot coordinate systems How do robots work? Degrees-of-freedom; axes-of-motion

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industrial robots in radiation fields
Industrial Robots in Radiation Fields
  • What problem do we want to solve?
  • Examples industrial robots
  • Robot coordinate systems
  • How do robots work?
  • Degrees-of-freedom; axes-of-motion
  • Motors, encoders, resolvers, limit and home switches
  • Radiation
  • Radiation hardening
  • Quick disconnects
  • End effectors
  • Robotics research

Slide 1

industrial robots in radiation fields3
Industrial Robots in Radiation Fields
  • We want to use industrial robots to weld lids on certain radioactive waste materials storage canisters.
  • We need to use robots because the radioactive exposure is too great in this specific application for personnel to be present.

Robot 1

Robot 1

Storage canister

Slide 2

slide4

Tool end

Articulated Arm Robot

6-axis motion

Floor mounted

Slide 3

slide5

Cartesian robots

Linear slides

Slide 4

slide6

SCARA robots

"Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm".

Slide 5

slide7

3 Translation axes

Y

P2

X

P1

Z

Slide 6

slide8

Y

P2

X

P1

Z

Slide 7

slide9

3 Translation axes

3 Rotation axes

Y

θ2

P2

X

θ1

P1

Z

θ3

Slide 8

slide10

3 or 4 axis

6 axis

3 to 5 axis

Slide 9

slide11

Axis 6

6 degrees-of-freedom

Axis 4

Axis 3

Axis 5

Axis 2

Axis 1

Slide 10

slide12

θ6

P

Forward kinematics:

for a specific robot geometry,

given θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4, θ5, θ6

find P

Inverse kinematics:

for a specific robot geometry,

given P

find θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4, θ5, θ6

θ4

θ3

θ5

θ2

See, for example:

P. J. McKerrow, Introduction to Robotics, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-18240-8, 1991.

W. Khalil & E. Dombre, Modeling, Identification & Control of Robots, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 1-56032-983-1, 2002.

θ1

Slide 11

slide13

Worker Category 

Legal Limit 

  18-year old male 

5 rem/year 

  Pregnant woman

500 millirem (mrem) during pregnancy

Radiation environments

Robot exposure

10 to 1000 rem/hr gamma radiation

http://www.epa.gov/radiation/rert/radfacts.htm

Slide 12

slide14

Motor 5

Motor 4

Motor 3

Motor 2

Motor 1

Slide 13

slide15

Servo motors and drives

Radiation hardened motors are available.

Slide 14

slide17

Encoder disks

Plastic disk and sensing electronics are not radiation hardened.

Absolute

encoder disk

Incremental

encoder disk

Slide 16

slide18

Timing Diagram:

  • CPR (N):   The number of Cycles Per Revolution.One Shaft Rotation:   360 mechanical degrees, N cycles.One Electrical Degree (°e):   1/360th of one cycle.One Cycle (C):   360 electrical degrees (°e). Each cycle can be decoded into 1 or 4 codes, referred   to as X1 or X4 resolution multiplication.Symmetry:   A measure of the relationship between (X) and (Y) in electrical degrees,   nominally 180°e.Quadrature (Z):   The phase lag or lead between channels A and B in electrical degrees,    nominally 90°e.Index (CH I.):   The index output goes high once per revolution, coincident with the low states   of channels A and B, nominally 1/4 of one cycle (90°e).Position Error:   The difference between the actual shaft position and the position indicated by   the encoder cycle count.Cycle Error:   An indication of cycle uniformity. The difference between an observed shaft angle   which gives rise to one electrical cycle, and the nominal angular increment   of 1/N of a revolution.

Encoder signals

Slide 17

slide19

Resolvers

Radiation hardened resolvers are available.

Slide 18

slide20

Internal drive by precision gear boxes and timing belts

sprockets

Toothed belt

Radiation hardened timing belts are available.

Slide 19

slide22

Welding End Effector

Tool Quick Disconnect

Mounting Plate

Seam Tracker/Profile Measurement

Automatic Voltage

Control Axis

Wire Feed Positioner

Oscillation Axis

Video Camera

Video Camera

Wire Guide

TIG Torch

Slide 21

slide23

Video Camera

  • Clear view of cold wire TIG process operating at 350A
  • View area of ¾–1in. square at tip of tungsten
  • Arc on and off viewing modes with commanded switching
  • Camera position 4-7in. range from tip of tungsten
  • Viewing angles 40-55deg from torch axis
  • Minimum depth of focus of 1”
  • NTSC (color) or RS-170 (B&W) video output
  • Same camera system for leading and trailing cameras
  • Standard environmental requirements

Slide 22

slide24

Video Camera

Camera Views

Leading Camera View

Trailing Camera View

Slide 23

slide25

Video Camera

  • Remote head camera system with out of cell CCU
  • 2/3” Radiation tolerant CID imager
  • 750 x 512 Imager pixels
  • Resolution: 450 TVL Horizontal, 400 TVL Vertical
  • RS-170, 30FPS, 2:1 Interlaced Video Output
  • 1x106 rad total exposure (at 7x105 rad/hr)
  • 7x105 rad/hr maximum field strengths
  • Less rad damage when device is not energized
  • Camera Weight = 9.7 oz

Slide 24

slide28

Robot welding cell: 8-axis motion

Top linear slide

robot

Linear slide

Slide 27

slide29

robot

Weld torch

Linear slide

Slide 28

slide30

Drops of molten steel moving down the arc plasma.

electrode

molten steel drop

molten steel drop

weld pool

slide31

Weld torch

Spot weld

Slide 29

slide32

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

wire feeder

operator

power supply

GUI

volume

to

wfs & time

X-axis motor

arc length

to

voltage

Y-axis motor

Z-axis motor

Weld quality

Slide 30

bus

slide33

I/O

Agent Block Diagram

dead man

tasks,

state

analog

rules of behavior

com

port

dead man

I

state

digital

Ethernet/TCP-IP

high level messages

serial port

mid-level motion control

Slide 31

slide34

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

s

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

M

wire feeder

operator

power supply

GUI

volume

to

wfs & time

X-axis motor

arc length

to

voltage

Y-axis motor

Z-axis motor

Weld quality

Slide 32

industrial robots in radiation fields35
Industrial Robots in Radiation Fields
  • Discussed some aspects of using robots in radiation fields
  • Looked at some various types of industrial robots
  • Considered robot coordinate systems
  • Examined some aspects of the internal technology of robots
  • Considered problem of radiation hardening robots
  • Discussed some research on agent-based robot control

Slide 33