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PLATE TECTONICS. Chapters 7, 8, & 9 Test 2 material End. LEGEND. AZTEC INDIANS OF MEXICO SACRIFICED HUMANS TO KEEP AWAY EARTHQUAKES AND TO KEEP SUN ALIVE BY CUTTING OUT THE HEARTS OF THEIR VICTIMS AND THROWING THEM INTO VOLCANO. LEGEND.

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plate tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS

Chapters 7, 8, & 9

Test 2 material

End

legend
LEGEND
  • AZTEC INDIANS OF MEXICO SACRIFICED HUMANS TO KEEP AWAY EARTHQUAKES AND TO KEEP SUN ALIVE BY CUTTING OUT THE HEARTS OF THEIR VICTIMS AND THROWING THEM INTO VOLCANO
legend3
LEGEND
  • IN WESTERN AFRICA THOUGHT THE JUNGLE WAS THE HAIR OF A GIANT. ALL LIVING THINGS THAT CREPT OR CRAWLED IN THE JUNGLE WERE LIKE LICE IN THE GIANT’S HAIR. EARTHQUAKES WERE EXPLAINED AS THE GIANT SHAKING HIS HEAD TO GET RID OF THE LICE
legend4
LEGEND
  • IN POLYNESIA TWO GODDESSES WERE FIGHTING THEIR WAY ACROSS THE PACIFIC. WHEREVER AN EARTHQUAKE OR VOLCANO OCCURRED, THIS WAS A BATTLE SITE. WHEN A GODDESS WAS SPURNED BY A LOVER SHE THREW A TANTRUM AND LAVA FLOWED
legend5
LEGEND
  • VULCAN WAS THE ROMAN GOD WHO HAD A FORGE AT THE CENTER OF THE EARTH TO MAKE WEAPONS FOR THE GODS. WHENEVER HIS FORGE WAS WORKING LAVA SPEWED FORTH AT THE SURFACE.
legend6
LEGEND
  • IN ICELAND VIKING LEGEND TALKS OF ODIN & FRIGGA AND THEIR BELOVED SON BALDER. THE GOD OF MISCHIEF, LOKI, CONSPIRED TO HAVE BALDER KILLED.
famous volcanoes in history
FAMOUS VOLCANOES IN HISTORY
  • MOUNT VESUVIUS
  • MOUNT PELEE - WITH GLOWING CLOUD (NUEE ARDENTE)
  • PARICUTIN
  • KRAKATOA
famous earthquakes
FAMOUS EARTHQUAKES
  • GREAT ALASKA QUAKE OF 1964
  • GREAT CHINA QUAKE
  • NEW MADRID QUAKES OF 1811-1812
  • MISSISSIPPI RIVER STOOD UP ON END
  • CHURCH BELLS RANG IN BOSTON
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Y-62Ti5_6s
  • Pakistan quake of 2006
dr iben browning
DR. IBEN BROWNING
  • 1990 PREDICTED A 50% CHANCE OF EARTHQUAKE OF 6.5 - 7.5 IN NEW MADRID BETWEEN DEC. 1-5, 1990
  • CLAIMED A GREAT TIDAL STRAIN WOULD ALSO STRAIN THE SUBSURFACE
  • RECEIVED NOTORIETY FOR PREDICTING SF QUAKE OF 1989
arguments against dr browning s theory
ARGUMENTS AGAINST DR. BROWNING’S THEORY
  • NO FIRM SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT FOR HIS THEORY
  • WAS A BIOLOGIST SPECIALIZING IN CLIMATOLOGY AND WAS NOT A GEOLOGIST OR SEISMOLOGIST
  • ERRONOUS CLAIM TO FAME FOR PREDICTING SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE OF 1989
slide15
TRANSCRIPTS REVEALED BROWNING PREDICTED AN EARTHQUAKE OF 6.0+ WOULD OCCUR SOMETIME ON OR AROUND OCT 16TH (ACTUAL QUAKE WAS 17TH) SOMEWHERE IN WORLD.
  • THESE QUAKES HAPPEN EVERY 3 DAYS SO NOT MUCH OF A FORECAST
slide16
THE ONLY GEOLOGIST IN THE NATION SUPPORTING HIM HAD SHAKEY REPUTATION. HAD FLOWN OVER THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA USING A PSYCHIC TRYING TO LOCATE AREAS WHERE AN EARTHQUAKE WOULD STRIKE
alfred wegener
ALFRED WEGENER
  • THEORY OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT & PLATE TECTONICS
  • PANGAEA
  • LAURASIA
  • GONDWANA
  • GLOSSOPTERIS
what was effect of continental movement
WHAT WAS EFFECT OF CONTINENTAL MOVEMENT?
  • NEW CLIMATES ALONG COASTS
  • NEW MOUNTAIN RANGES
  • NEW DESERTS
  • DRIFTING OF THE POLES
  • PLANT AND ANIMAL LIFE SIMILARITIES IN AREAS ONCE UNITED
sea floor spreading
SEA FLOOR SPREADING
  • WEGENER’S HYPOTHESIS WAS NOT READILY ACCEPTED BECAUSE IT FAILED TO PROVIDE MECHANISM FOR MOVEMENT
  • ARTHUR HOLMES, GEOLOGIST THOUGHT THE SEA FLOORS WERE DRAGGING ALONG THE CONTINENTS WHICH RESTED ON TOP OF THEM
slide25
THOUGHT CONVECTION PROCESS BEGAN BELOW EARTH’S SURFACE WHICH PUSHED MATERIAL UPWARD TO FORM RIDGE SYSTEMS ON OCEAN FLOOR. MATERIAL WIDENS THE OCEANS BY 1 OR 2 INCHES PER YEAR
what did holmes find on oceanic ridges
WHAT DID HOLMES FIND ON OCEANIC RIDGES?
  • EQUAL DISTANCE
  • EQUAL AGE
  • EQUAL THICKNESS
  • EQUAL MAGNETIC DIRECTION
  • WHAT DOES THIS SUGGEST?
plate boundaries
PLATE BOUNDARIES
  • DIVERGENT
  • CONVERGENT
  • TRANSFORM
divergent plate boundaries
DIVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
  • FOUND NEAR SPREADING CENTERS & AT THE MID-OCEANIC RIDGE SYSTEMS
  • RIFT VALLEYS
  • GREAT RIFT VALLEY OF AFRICA
convergent plate boundaries
CONVERGENT PLATE BOUNDARIES
  • OCEAN & CONTINENT
  • OCEAN & OCEAN
  • CONTINENT & CONTINENT
transform plate boundaries
TRANSFORM PLATE BOUNDARIES
  • SAN ANDREAS FAULT
  • MOVING TO NORTH/NORTHWEST AT A RATE OF 35 MILLIMETERS PER YEAR
earthquake
EARTHQUAKE
  • VIBRATION OF THE EARTH PRODUCED BY THE RAPID RELEASE OF ENERGY ALONG FAULTS
  • THIS ENERGY RADIATES OUTWARD FROM THE SOURCE OF THE QUAKE KNOWN AS THE FOCUS
epicenter
EPICENTER
  • THE AREA ON THE EARTH’S SURFACE IMMEDIATELY ABOVE THE FOCUS
  • IT IS NOT THE SOURCE OF THE QUAKE
faults
FAULTS
  • PRODUCED BY THE NEVER ENDING MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH’S CRUST
  • FIND FAULTS AND EARTHQUAKES NEAR PLATE BOUNDARIES
other quakes
OTHER QUAKES
  • FORESHOCKS - QUAKES THAT PRECEDE THE MAIN EARTHQUAKE
  • AFTERSHOCKS - QUAKES THAT FOLLOW THE MAIN EARTHQUAKE
earthquake recordings
EARTHQUAKE RECORDINGS
  • SEISMOLOGY
  • SEISMOGRAPH
  • SEISMOGRAM
  • RICHTER SCALE - LOGARITHMIC SCALE USED TO MEASURE THE ENERGY AND THE WAVE AMPLITUDE OF THE EARTHQUAKE
slide48
.
  • ONE MILLION EARTHQUAKES OCCUR EVERY YEAR
  • 6.0 OCCURS EVERY THREE DAYS
  • ABOVE 8.0 ONCE EVERY 5/10 YEARS
  • BELOW 2.5 ARE NOT FELT BUT CAN BE MEASURED
richter scale increments
RICHTER SCALE INCREMENTS
  • AN INCREASE OF 1.0 = A 10 TIMES INCREASE IN WAVE AMPLITUDE AND A 31.5 TIMES INCREASE IN ENERGY
  • AN INCREASE OF 2.0 = A 100 TIMES INCREASE IN AMPLITUDE AND A 992.25 INCREASE IN ENERGY (31.5 X 31.5)
earthquake waves
EARTHQUAKE WAVES
  • SURFACE WAVES - TRAVEL ALONG EARTH’S OUTER LAYER
  • BODY WAVES - TRAVEL THROUGH EARTH’S INTERIOR
    • PRIMARY WAVES [P WAVES] - COMPRESS & EXPAND ROCKS IN THE DIRECTION WAVE TRAVELS
    • SECONDARY WAVES [S WAVES] - SHAKE THE PARTICLES AT RIGHT ANGLES TO DIRECTION OF TRAVEL
finding earthquake epicenters
FINDING EARTHQUAKE EPICENTERS
  • P WAVES ARRIVE AHEAD OF S WAVES. THE GREATER THE DISTANCE AWAY FROM EPICENTER THE LONGER THE TIME SPAN FROM P WAVE TO S WAVE. USE TRAVEL TIME GRAPHS FROM 3 OR MORE DIFFERENT STATIONS [TRIANGULATION] & THE INTERSECTING POINT IS THE EPICENTER
mercalli intensity scale
MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE
  • ASSESSES DAMAGE FROM A QUAKE AT A SPECIFIC LOCATION
  • I - NOT FELT
  • II - FELT ONLY ON UPPER FLOORS
  • VI - HEAVY FURNITURE MOVED
  • X - MOST FRAME STRUCTURES DESTROYED
  • XII - DAMAGE TOTAL
precursors
PRECURSORS
  • PHENOMENA THAT PRECEDE & THUS PROVIDE A WARNING OF A FORTHCOMING EARTHQUAKE
    • UPLIFT, SUBSIDENCE, AND STRAIN IN THE ROCKS NEAR ACTIVE FAULTS
    • PECULIAR BEHAVIOR
earth s interior structure
EARTH’S INTERIOR STRUCTURE
  • CORE - SOLID INNER MADE UP OF IRON AND LIQUID OUTER CORE
  • MANTLE - LOWER IS A MIXTURE OF IRON, MAGNESIUM, AND SILICATES. UPPER MANTLE IS RIGID. UPPERMOST MANTLE IS WHERE THE LITHOSPHERE BEGINS
  • CRUST - SOLID EARTH SURFACE
mohorovicic discontinuity moho
MOHOROVICIC DISCONTINUITY [MOHO]
  • THE BOUNDARY SEPARATING THE CRUST FROM THE MANTLE , DISCERNIBLE BY AN INCREASE IN SEISMIC VELOCITY
lithosphere
LITHOSPHERE
  • THE OUTERMOST RIGID UNIT [CRUST & UPPERMOST MANTLE] OF THE EARTH AVERAGING ABOUT 100 KILOMETERS [62 MILES] IN THICKNESS. THICKER OVER THE CONTINENTS & THINNER OVER THE OCEAN BASINS
asthenosphere
ASTHENOSPHERE
  • BENEATH THE LITHOSPHERE TO A DEPTH OF ABOUT 660 KILOMETERS [410 MILES]. TOP PART HAS MELTED ALLOWING LITHOSPHERE TO EFFECTIVELY DETACH FROM THE ASTHENOSPHERE BELOW
  • IMPORTANT FOR PLATE TECTONICS THEORY
crustal deformation
CRUSTAL DEFORMATION
  • FOLDING - THE COMPRESSION OF ROCK
  • SYNCLINES ARE DOWNFOLDS OF ROCK
  • ANTICLINES ARE UPFOLDS OF ROCK
faulting
FAULTING
  • FRACTURES IN ROCK INVOLVING DISPLACEMENT OF ROCK ON ONE SIDE WITH RESPECT TO THE OTHER
  • A JOINT IS A FRACTURE WITHOUT DISPLACEMENT
normal fault
NORMAL FAULT
  • STRESSES PULL CRUSTAL ROCK APART CREATING MORE HORIZONTAL SPACE
reverse fault
REVERSE FAULT
  • ONE BLOCK RIDING OVER THE OTHER COMPRESSING IT INTO SMALLER HORIZONTAL SPACE
strike slip fault
STRIKE SLIP FAULT
  • HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT SUCH AS IN A TRANSFORM FAULT
crustal deformation features
CRUSTAL DEFORMATION FEATURES
  • GRABEN - SUNKEN BLOCKS BETWEEN USUALLY PARALLEL NORMAL FAULTS AS IN A RIFT VALLEY
  • HORST - A BLOCK RAISED BETWEEN REVERSE FAULTS
volcanoes
VOLCANOES
  • LAVA
  • MAGMA
  • PYROCLASTICS
    • LAPILLI - WALNUT-SIZED
    • CINDERS - PEA-SIZED
    • BLOCK
factors determining type of eruption
FACTORS DETERMINING TYPE OF ERUPTION
  • MAGMA’S COMPOSITION
  • TEMPERATURE
  • AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED GASES
  • THESE FACTORS AFFECT THE MAGMA’S VISCOSITY OR THICKNESS. MORE VISCOUS LAVA EQUALS MORE VIOLENT ERUPTION
where do we find volcanoes
WHERE DO WE FIND VOLCANOES?
  • SUBDUCTION BOUNDARIES
  • SEA FLOOR SPREADING CENTERS
  • HOT SPOTS
  • LOIHI
types of volcanic eruptions
TYPES OF VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
  • EFFUSIVE ERRUPTIONS ARE GENTLE USUALLY CONSISTING OF LAVA. THEY PRODUCE SHIELD VOLCANOES WHICH ARE VERY BROAD GENTLY SLOPING CRATERS SUCH AS WE HAVE IN HAWAII
slide84
.
  • EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS CAN PRODUCE TWO TYPES OF VOLCANIC CONES. IF THE MATERIAL IS SOLELY PYROCLASTICS, A CINDER CONE IS PRODUCED. THIS IS A SMALL STEEPLY SLOPED CRATER
slide86
IF THE ERUPTION ALTERNATES BETWEEN PRODUCING LAVA AND PYROCLASTICS, A COMPOSITE CONE OR STRATO VOLCANO IS PRODUCED. IN THESE THERE ARE ALTERNATING LAYERS OF LAVA AND PYROCLASTIC
lava types
LAVA TYPES
  • PAHOEHOE - HOTTEST (2000 DEGREES F) AND HAS SMOOTH AND ROPEY TEXTURE
  • AA - COOLER (1800 DEGREES F) AND IS JAGGED AND BLOCKY
  • CLINKERS - 1600 DEGREES F, GETS ITS NAME FROM ITS SOUND
volcanic features
VOLCANIC FEATURES
  • CALDERA (KETTLE) - BASIN SHAPED DEPRESSION - VALLE GRANDE IN NEW MEXICO OR CRATER LAKE, OREGON
  • PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
  • NUEE ARDENTE – MT PELEE
slide94
PLUG DOMES
  • VOLCANIC NECKS - SHIPROCK, NM
  • DIKE RIDGE
  • SILL
  • LACCOLITH - A MASSIVE IGNEOUS BODY INTRUDED BETWEEN PRE-EXISTING STRATA
  • BATHOLITH – EROSION EXPOSED MASS
  • LAHAR - MUDFLOWS
test 2 review
TEST 2 REVIEW
  • How will you do?
fossils can be all but which of the following
Fossils can be all but which of the following?
  • A. Indirect Evidence
  • B. Actual Remains
  • C. Sedimentation
  • D. Imprint
  • Correct Response
  • C. Sedimentation
2 which statement is true about the earth s crust
2. Which statement is true about the Earth’s crust?
  • A. Continental rocks are heavier than ocean rocks
  • B. Granite is a type of ocean rock
  • C. Basalt is heavier than Granite
  • D. Continental rocks are called sima
  • Correct response
  • C. basalt is heavier than granite
3 smaller sized crystals are found in what type of rock
3. Smaller-sized crystals are found in what type of rock?
  • A. Intrusive
  • B. Extrusive
  • C. Silicates
  • D. None of these
  • Correct response
  • B. extrusive
4 before it was a gneiss rock what was it
4. Before it was a gneiss rock what was it?
  • A. marble
  • B. sandstone
  • C. mica
  • D. granite
  • Correct response?
  • D. granite
5 the san andreas fault is what type of boundary
5. The San Andreas fault is what type of boundary?
  • A. divergent
  • B. convergent
  • C. transform
  • D. Spreading center
  • Correct response?
  • C. transform
6 pahoehoe is
6. Pahoehoe is?
  • A. a jagged and blocky type of lava
  • B. cooler than aa
  • C. smooth and ropey textured lava
  • D. the name of the new Hawaiian Island
  • Correct response
  • C. smooth and ropey textured lava
7 valle grande crater lake are examples of
7. Valle Grande & Crater Lake are examples of:
  • A. calderas
  • B. plug domes
  • C. dike ridges
  • D. laccoliths
  • Correct response?
  • A. calderas
8 iben browning was famous for
8. Iben Browning was famous for?
  • A. his work in plate tectonics
  • B. his work as a seismologist
  • C. his faulty New Madrid prediction
  • D. A & B are true
  • Correct response?
  • C. his faulty NM prediction
positive aspects of volcanic activity
POSITIVE ASPECTS OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
  • PRODUCES EXCELLENT AGRICULTURAL SOILS
  • HELPS TO FORM METALLIC ORES
  • PRODUCES GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
  • ADDS GASES TO OUR ATMOSPHERE
  • ADDS CONDENSATION SURFACES