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Persuasion. What is persuasion?. Communication that has as its purpose the changing, modification, or shaping of the responses (attitudes or behavior) of the receiver(s). Persuasion versus Informing. Persuasion involves arguing for a particular point of view.

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Presentation Transcript
what is persuasion
What is persuasion?
  • Communication that has as its purpose the changing, modification, or shaping of the responses (attitudes or behavior) of the receiver(s).
persuasion versus informing
Persuasion versus Informing
  • Persuasion involves arguing for a particular point of view.
  • Persuasion involves trying to change someone’s thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors.
ethics and persuasion
Ethics and Persuasion
  • Persuasion is ethically neutral (it is ‘amoral’).
  • Knowledge of persuasion can be used as a defense.
  • The source’s motives are considered when making judgments of ‘morality’.
cialdini s persuasion heuristics
Cialdini’s Persuasion Heuristics
  • Reciprocation
  • Commitment and Consistency
  • Social Proof
  • Liking
  • Authority
  • Scarcity
witte s extended parallel process model
Witte’s Extended Parallel Process Model
  • Fear Appeals
    • use ‘gruesome’ content in the form of:
      • vivid and/or personalistic language
      • gory pictures
  • Components of the Model:
  • Threat (severity & susceptibility)
  • Efficacy (response- & self-efficacy)
  • Fear Control vs. Danger Control
eppm continued
EPPM continued
  • First, we appraise threat.
    • if moderate to high, then fear is elicited
    • if low, then no motivation (dismissed)
  • When we perceive threat, but no efficacy, we engage in fear control.
  • When we perceive both threat and efficacy, we engage in danger control.
summary of fear appeal research
Summary of Fear Appeal Research
  • Show sufficient threat
    • moderate to high fear appeals are most effective
  • Show sufficient efficacy
    • introducing an effective solution or course of action strengthens a fear appeal
  • The higher the source’s credibility, the more effective the use of fear appeals.
typical domains of persuasion
Typical Domains of Persuasion
  • Questions of Fact
    • seek to persuade an audience to accept the speaker’s view of the facts on a particular issue
    • e.g., Was there a Philadelphia experiment? (Lorraine’s speech topic)
domains continued
Domains, continued
  • Questions of Value:
    • Require judgments based on one’s beliefs about what is right, wrong, good, bad, moral, immoral, etc.
    • Are usually organized topically
      • The first main point establishes standards.
      • The second main point applies those standards to the topic.
domains continued11
Domains, continued
  • Questions of Policy
    • Deal with Specific Courses of Action
    • Two types
      • Seeks to gain passive agreement
      • Seeks to motivate immediate action
    • Must Address 3 Basic Issues:
      • need
      • plan
      • practicality
patterns of organization
Patterns of Organization
  • Problem-Solution
  • Problem-Cause-Solution
  • Comparative Advantages
  • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
monroe s motivated sequence
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence
  • First, gain the audience’s attention.
  • Second, show the need for change.
  • Third, satisfy the need by presenting a plan that will remedy that need.
  • Fourth, visualize the benefits and practicality of the plan.
  • Fifth, urge the audience to take action in support of the plan.
common problems using mms
Common Problems Using MMS
  • Failure to analyze the problem first
  • Failure to follow steps in order (do not mix up or combine steps)
  • Failure to balance coverage:
    • students tend to skimp on the satisfaction and visualization steps
  • Failure to be specific in the satisfaction step -- e.g, How much does it cost? Where can we find it? How long will it take? What’s the phone number to call?
  • Be realistic in your persuasive goal
  • Know your target audience and their predisposition toward the topic (whenever possible)
    • one-sided vs. two-sided messages
    • fear appeals
  • Anticipate audience objections and answer them in your speech.
tips continued
Tips, continued
  • Convince the audience, do not try to coerce.
  • Use evidence, logic, and argument to persuade, but also appeal to emotions.
  • Every element in your presentation -- appearance, tone, gesture -- should reinforce your argument.