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Partnership for Learning Conference for CPR-trainers and Supervisors February 27-March 2 Rabat USING THE SCENARIO TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE A. Senhaji CPR OUJDA senabdelouahab @ yahoo.fr USING THE SCENARIO TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OUTLINE

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Partnership for LearningConference for CPR-trainers and SupervisorsFebruary 27-March 2Rabat

USING THE SCENARIO TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

A. Senhaji

CPR OUJDA

senabdelouahab@yahoo.fr

slide2

USING THE SCENARIO

TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

OUTLINE

  • Strategic Interaction: Definition and Rationale.
  • The Scenario: Components and Stages.
  • Types of Scenarios.
  • Strategic Interaction: Characteristics and Benefits.
  • The Role of the Teacher.
  • Role Play vs. Scenario Role. 
using the scenario to enhance students communicative competence
USING THE SCENARIO TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

OBJECTIVES:

Participants will be able to:

  • Get acquainted with the interactive approach of strategic interaction.
  • Explore and experiment with the use of the scenario in the classroom.
  • Develop awareness of how the use of the scenario can promote communicative competence.
  • Distinguish between role play and scenario role.
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Role A: Teacher

You have been assigned to write an important report about your school. It is due in the principal's office tomorrow. However, if you could have one more day, it would be a much better report. (Actually, it is your first wedding anniversary, and you have made reservations at a very prestigious hotel for a romantic dinner with your spouse.) Prepare to discuss this matter with your principal.

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Role B: Principal

A meeting with the ministry of education has been moved up from tomorrow to this afternoon. As a result, the report being written by your teacher is needed today, rather than tomorrow as originally planned. How will you tell your teacher to speed up the writing of the report without jeopardizing its quality?

strategic interaction definition and rationale
STRATEGIC INTERACTIONDEFINITION AND RATIONALE

DEFINITION

  • S.I. refers to a conversational andinteractive teaching method devisedby Robert Di Pietro at the University of Delaware (1987)
  • Involves the use of the scenario in teaching (the main organizational device).  
  • Aims at training strategic competence under unrehearsed, unpredictable circumstances, generating plenty of authentic lge use in the classroom 

to foster better communicativecompetence in the target lge. .  entails the unexpected and requires the use of lge to resolve conflicts…

“An open–ended strategic Interplay of Roles functioning to fulfill personal agendas within a shared context.” Robert Di Pietro 

strategic interaction definition and rationale7
STRATEGIC INTERACTIONDEFINITION AND RATIONALE

THE RATIONALE

  • “It is as users of the new lge that people become learners of it” 
  • Speaking is, after all spontaneous // It should be rehearsed in as life-like an atmosphere as possible.  improvisation
  • “Lge involves the full range of human behavior. It is not only cognitive but social and personal as well. Humans are concerned with accomplishing their purposes through the tool of lge.”
  • Holisticview of the learning process where the cognitive and humanistic aspects contribute to the student's and the teacher's personal growth.
  • “Development of language control proceeds through creativity which is nurtured by interactive, participatory activities.”
the scenario components and stages
THE SCENARIO:COMPONENTS and STAGES

COMPONENTS

“An open–ended Strategic Interplay of Roles functioning to fulfill Personal Agendas within a shared context.”Robert Di Pietro

        

  • Strategic Interplay (open-ended) (physical involvement)
  • Roles Dynamic  Never played out the same way twice; Reciprocation lends itself to dramatic tension.

(Adult/-Child) (Parent/Offspring) (Salesperson/Buyer) (T/ ST) (Waiter/Customer) (Employer/Employee) (cautious/spontaneous)

  • PersonalAgendas (aims, objectives)
  • Shared Context (reason for interaction /argue/convince…) (unshared information builds a 'hidden agenda‘) 
the scenario components and stages9
THE SCENARIO:COMPONENTS and STAGES

STAGE 1.THE REHEARSAL

  • T sets the scene. (gives a brief introduction. but no details. )
  • The class is divided into two sets of small groups (A/B).  Different groups are assigned different roles.
  • Copies of the A and B role-cards are given to groups.
  • The rehearsal  SS read, understand, generate ideas about what they may be asked, brainstorm types of possible exchanges 
  • Learners are given, or encouraged to assume, complete freedom in choosing their strategies and conversational roles.
  • A student is appointed as a spokesperson. 
the scenario components and stages10
THE SCENARIO:COMPONENTS and STAGES

STAGE 2.THEPERFORMANCE

  • Group representatives may have recourse to their groups.  SS request time out.  Strategies may have to be reconsidered, adopted or abandoned, depending on new information.  SS work creatively to resolve the conflict successfully.
  • Most likely the encounter will force each character to make spontaneous strategic adjustments situation shifts from what was rehearsed to what actually takes place during the scenario.
  • SS try to maintain comº to solve the problem that has been arisen. T. takes notes
  • A well-constructed scenario quickly leads to a "twist" SS' expectations quickly disappear. 
the scenario components and stages11
THE SCENARIO:COMPONENTS and STAGES

STAGE3.THEDEBRIEFING

  • Time for review & reflection events of the Performance stage //solutions are discussed.  feedback is provided on how to improve comº/ Alternate strategies/ culture-specific customs and attitudes/ appropriateness of language use/ Various matters of grammar/ vocabulary/ pronunciation/ discourse… 
  • During this stage, T uses notes provide feedback on how to improve comº // performance  SS will be better prepared to perform in future scenarios.
  • Encourage the class to make suggestions.
  • Ask SS to guess the other agenda. 
types of scenarios
TYPES OF SCENARIOS
  • The basic scenario is the Two-Role type suitable for one encounter(a class period). Class split into 2 groups.  Spokesperson interacts on behalf of the whole group.
  • Multiple-Role scenarios have more than 2 direct roles.  Involves using the teacher/moderator as a background character  can be advantageous for moving the scenario along (especially with less-advanced groups). Can provide assistance// inject additional tension into the scenario.
  • Group scenarios All SS react in their own ways to an event or situation that involves or affects everyone in the group. (Usually used with lower-proficiency L2 students).
  • Open-Endedscenarios promote the development of long-term roles and interrelated episodes that may span a number of class sessions.
strategic interaction characteristics benefits
STRATEGIC INTERACTIONCHARACTERISTICS & BENEFITS

CHARACTERISTICS

  • Interactive
  • Student centered
  • Utilizes group work
  • Task based
  • Develops BICS (as opposed to CALP) 
strategic interaction characteristics and benefits
STRATEGIC INTERACTIONCHARACTERISTICS AND BENEFITS

BENEFITS

  • Challenging & Motivating learning experience. ( Risk-taking) 
  • Encourages peer collaboration and cooperative learning.
  • Engenders a lot of animated conversation and communication on the part of the students.
  • Enlivens the classroom atmosphere  involvement and initiative.
  • Develops attentiveness and more sensitive listeners.
  • Emphasizes spontaneity (to be able to rely on “the moment”). Be on your feet.
  • Improves oral fluency.
strategic interaction characteristics and benefits15
STRATEGIC INTERACTIONCHARACTERISTICS AND BENEFITS

BENEFITS

  • Helps use language purposefully in a contextualized way. (Unpredictable real life situations)
  • Emphasizes communication and intelligibility.
  • Builds self-esteem (while developing interpersonal skills and gaining self confidence)
  • Develops improvisatory skills . (When a point of conflict/“twist”). (This emphasizes creativity, imagination and spontaneity)
  • Fosters better communication competence in the target language.
  • Promotes conversational management (starting/ending conversation, turn-taking, engaging in self-repair, changing the subject, arguing, interrupting…)
  • Enhances communication strategies(verbal and non verbal means of dealing with difficulties and breakdowns, paraphrasing, asking for clarification, using fillers, hesitation and pauses, code-switching, substituting, waiting, use of mimes, gestures and body movements… 
the role of the teacher
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER
  • T Creator of a non-threatening and relaxed ambience.
  • T redefinedas aGuide, Consultant, rather thanasa figure of power
  • T Modeling transmits confidence and SS know what is expected of them/how to accomplish the task.
  • T as Facilitator plays an implicit, non-interfering role 
  • Not knowledge transmitter/ not the source of information for the 1st 2 stages/ provides Helpful feedback when asked / Advises/ can step back / act as an Observer.. A short T presentation stage suffices in providing scaffolds to self-directed learning. (tasks carefully explained, with examples).
  • (Debriefing Stage)T re-assumesrole central focus of class.
  • Moderator / Model / Facilitator / Reference / Observer / Guide / Consultant / Counselor/ Advisor / … 
r ole p lay and s cenario r ole
ROLE PLAYandSCENARIO ROLE
  • RP “Memorized” dialogues  Discourse is scripted and instructional.
  • SRInvolves natural & spontaneous discourse.
  • RP No freedom of choice  Fixed roles T-oriented tasks.
  • SRFree to choose.  Interpret role as they wish. Roles are negotiable.  Focus is group oriented.
  • RP Principal aim is correct performance of grammatical structures or lge functions  to reinforce the syllabus.
  • SRFocus on fluency communication, Aspects of the target lge are taken from the interaction and determine the linguistic syllabus.
r ole p lay and s cenario r ole18
ROLE PLAYandSCENARIO ROLE
  • RP ST is given a “part”,  ST portrays someone other than self.
  • SRST plays self within the framework of the role.
  • RP ST is often told what to do or think (e.g., You want to do sth but your partner doesn’t).
  • SRST is given a situation but not told what to think or do.
  • RP Usually all the players know what the others will say and do.
  • SRThe interaction contains a greater element of uncertainty and dramatic tension.  'hidden agenda' 
r ole p lay and s cenario r ole19
ROLE PLAY

Memorized dialogues  Discourse is scripted and instructional

No freedom of choice  Fixed roles T-oriented tasks

Principal aim is correct performance of grammatical structures or lge functions  to reinforce the syllabus.

ST is given a “part”,  ST portrays someone other than self.

ST is often told what to do or think (e.g., You want to do sth but your partner doesn’t).

Usually all the players know what the others will say and do.

SCENARIO PLAY

Involves natural & spontaneous discourse

Free to choose. interpret role as they wish. roles are negotiable. Focus is group oriented.

Focus on fluency communication, Aspects of the target lge are taken from the interaction and determine the linguistic syllabus.

ST plays self within the framework of the role.

ST is given a situation but not told what to think or do.

The interaction contains a greater element of uncertainty and dramatic tension.  'hidden agenda'

ROLE PLAYandSCENARIO ROLE
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DEFINITION

An open–ended

strategic Interplay

of Roles functioning

to fulfill

personal agendas

within a shared context

slide21
THE RATIONALE

Holisticview of

the learning process where

the cognitive and

humanistic aspects

contribute to the student's and

the teacher's personal growth.

slide22
COMPONENTS

Strategic Interplay

Roles

Personal Agendas

Shared Context

slide23
STAGES

The Rehearsal

The Performance

The Debriefing

slide24
TYPES OF SCENARIOS

Two-Role

Multiple-Role

Group scenarios

Open-Ended

slide25
CHARACTERISTICS

Interactive

Student centered

Utilizes group work

Task based

Develops BICS / CALP

slide26
BENEFITS

THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER

ROLE PLAY and SCENARIO ROLE

slide27

Thank you for your

Attention and Collaboration.

A.Senhaji

CPR OUJDA

senabdelouahab@yahoo.fr