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Multimedia object types: animation ISMT multimedia Dr Vojislav B Mišić Animation Technically, similar to video – a sequence of still images Images created artificially, as opposed to video (which presents something happening in the real world, maybe retouched)

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multimedia object types animation

Multimedia object types:animation

ISMT multimediaDr Vojislav B Mišić

  • Technically, similar to video – a sequence of still images
  • Images created artificially, as opposed to video (which presents something happening in the real world, maybe retouched)
  • Why? Because it is a good (and sometimes less expensive) way to show/say some things
what we are going to talk about
What we are going to talk about?
  • Cel (and flipbook) animation
  • Sprite, path, vector animation
  • Key frames and tweening
  • Character animation
  • 2D vs. 3D
  • … and other things
flipbook animation
Flipbook animation
  • displaying a sequence of graphic files(e.g., a slide show)
  • problem: takes too much time (especially over the Internet)
  • solution: some form of compression (we will discuss this in more detail later)
  • compression techniques are usually proprietary (different type of images!)
cel animation
Cel animation
  • animation created by a sequence of still images (as always)
  • different characters, objects, backgrounds overlaid to obtain the final image
  • final image is shot frame by frame
  • changes are made only to objects which move
  • multiplan camera (Disney): distance between layers in order to create an illusion of depth
sprites and paths
Sprites and Paths
  • sprite: a part of the animation which moves independently of the rest
  • anything can be a sprite: ball, animal, human, …
  • a sprite can be attached to a path (or vice versa), so that successive sprite positions are located on a path
  • sprite can animate in-place, or move along a path, or both
splines and vectors
Splines and Vectors
  • paths can be linear, but that is unrealistic
  • more often, paths follow a spline curve
  • watch for gravity!
  • example: mixed feelings
  • sprites can be describedas raster objects
key frames
Key frames
  • most important frames are drawn first:key frames
    • establish the main dramatic poses,
    • define the flow of actions, and
    • create the overall graphic style of the animation
  • tweening:frames areinsertedbetweenthe key frames
  • computer can do much of the tedious work
motion interpolation
Motion interpolation
  • Motion along an arbitrary line
  • Computer performs the interpolation
  • Special effects (rotation, resizing) can be specified along the line
character animation
Character animation
  • often the trickiest part – many simultaneous movements involved
  • faces are very difficult to animate
  • sometimescutouts areused forbody parts
other design effects
Other design effects
  • ease-in and ease-out
  • velocity curves
  • line-of-action
  • secondary action and overlapping action
  • follow-through
  • hierarchical motion
  • exaggeration
anticipation action reaction
Anticipation, action, reaction
  • Action/reaction is often anticipated before it actually happens
  • Sometimes aided by showing small movements immediately before the action
  • Reaction-recovery: small movements in the opposite direction immediately after the action
  • Fake: the action itself is not shown, only what happens before and immediately after
  • (in mechanical engineering) study of motion of rigid objects and structures
  • (in motion picture technology) study of motion of (rigid) objects and structures with joints
  • examples: men (objects) walking, running,falling down or apart
  • inverse kinematics: calculating the motion form predefined key positions, under the given set of constraints
  • transformation of one image into another
  • very popular a few years ago
  • a number of key points is set on both images
  • actual transformation is calculated on the basis of transformation (in both position and color) of key points
  • more key points + more intermediate steps = smoother transformation
animated gifs
Animated GIFs
  • a sequence of still images (actually GIF images according to GIF89a standard), packed for the Internet
  • suitable for simple animations
  • small size = short loading time
  • several tools available (including one from Microsoft)
macromedia flash
Macromedia Flash
  • Quickly becoming de facto standard
  • Compact export format, players
  • Ability to incorporate raster images as well as vector objects
  • Powerful 2D motion effects
  • Hotspots to support interactivity
  • More on Flash in the lab sessions …
2d vs 3d
2D vs. 3D
  • our perception of the world is three-dimensional
  • 3D effects improve visual appearance
  • 3D special effects can be added to 2D images (most drawing/painting programs can do it)
  • 3D images can be generated from appropriate scene setups
  • … but: sophisticated applications are required
3d effects
3D effects
  • adding depth to 2D images
  • effects like
    • extruding
    • shadows
    • highlights
    • embossing
    • texturing
    • special lighting effects
genuine 3d
Genuine 3D
  • genuine 3D worlds rendered into 2D images
  • tasks in creating 3D: a brief overview according to Pixar
step 1 creating storyboards
Step 1: Creating Storyboards
  • detailed storyboard drawings are created as the blueprint for the action and dialog
  • there can be as many as 3 to 4 thousand such drawings for a feature-length movie (which comes to about onedrawing everytwo seconds or so)
  • they are revisedmany times duringthe creativedevelopment process
step 2 modeling
Step 2: Modeling
  • specialized animation software is used to create three-dimensional computer models of characters, props, and sets
  • computer models describe the shape of the object as well as themotion controls thatthe animators use tocreate movementand expressions
step 3 animation
Step 3: Animation
  • specialized animation software allows animators to choreograph the motion in each scene by defining key frames or poses
  • computer automatically creates the "in-between" frames
  • animators neitherdraw, nor paint thescenes, as is requiredin traditionalanimation process
step 4
Step 4:
  • surface characteristics, including textures, finishes and colors, are added to every object in the scene
  • textures can simulate a wide variety of appearances
  • textures may be 2Dimages or proceduralalgorithms
  • additional properties:reflectivity,transparency …
step 5
Step 5:
  • Using "digital lights," every scene is lit in much the same manner as stage lighting
  • Key, fill and bounce lights and room ambience are all defined and used to enhance the mood and emotion of each scene
lighting is the key
Lighting is the key
  • Key light – the brightest
  • Fill light – opposite the key light, reduces contrast and shadows
  • Back light – reduces shadows, separates the subject from the background
  • Powder your nose
step 6 rendering
Step 6: Rendering
  • rendering software (Pixar's proprietary RenderMan) "draws" the finished image by computing every pixel of the image from the model, animation, shading, and lighting information
  • once rendered, finalimages aretransferred to film,video, or CD-ROM
  • Animation is often the simplest way to accomplish motion
  • If you want to go beyond what Flash can offer, be ready for surprises …