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Geothermie. Geothermisches Potential in Griechenland & oberflächennahe Anwendung 23.10.2009. Bearbeiter: Kyriakopoulos Dimitrios (28240949), Re 2 Mitsakos Antonios (29100143), Re 2. Outline. Introduction Historical Background Legislation

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geothermisches potential in griechenland oberfl chennahe anwendung 23 10 2009

Geothermie

Geothermisches Potential in Griechenland & oberflächennahe Anwendung23.10.2009

Bearbeiter: Kyriakopoulos Dimitrios (28240949), Re2

Mitsakos Antonios (29100143), Re2

slide2

Outline

  • Introduction
  • Historical Background
  • Legislation
  • Geothermal Potential
  • Electric Power Generation
  • Direct Use Applications
    • Greenhouse and soil heating
    • Space heating
    • Agricultural drying
    • Aquaculture
    • Bathing, Spas
    • Water desalination
  • Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • Future Outlook
  • References

Page 2

slide3

Introduction

Geothermal Energy

the heat stored in the Earth

(and its internal fluids)

Conversion into other types of Energy

Electric Power Generation

Used directly as heat, without any further conversion

Direct Use

  • Small conductor losses

more efficient transmission over long distances

  • High temperature fluids (>100 ºC)

Only in certain areas on Earth (magmatic activity,

young volcanism)

  • No lost energy during conversion of heat into electricity

more efficient exploitation of resources

  • Low temperature fluids

more widespread

Page 3

slide4

Introduction

European Potential

source [11]

source [11]

Geothermal Energy can serve 1,2 % of EU-27 total energy consumption

1 % of EU-27 power consumption

Page 4

slide5

Historical Background

Geothermal: “of or relating to the internal heat of the earth”

Greek origin gaea=earth andthermόs=hot

  • Thermal waters for balneology known from prehistoric times
  • Mythology certain thermal springs/therapeutic thermal waters protected and sacred to gods
  • Classical era Hippocrates of Kos the first physician who used balneology to cure his patients

More than 750 thermal springs and more than 60 spas in operation

mid ’70s interest in generation of electric power (high enthalpy geothermal fields in Milos island)

Around 1980 the first use of thermal waters (apart from balneology) for greenhouse heating

Start of systematic exploration in the early ’70s by

Institute of Mineral and Geological Exploration (IGME)

numerous R&D projects by EU/ participation IGME, PPC, Universities, Research Inst.

Page 5

slide6

Legislation

2003

+ a series of Ministerial Decisions up to 2005

1984

first separate geothermal legislation

Always a subdivision of the Mining Law

2006

Final Law

Main new features

  • Classification according to the degree of knowledge
    • Proven fields (level of confidence >90%)
    • Possible fields (70%<level of confidence <90%)
    • Unknown or no-explored fields
  • Classification according to the temperature of geothermal fluid
    • High temperature (T > 90 ºC)
    • Low temperature (25 ºC < T < 90 ºC)
  • Average feed-in tariff for geothermal electricity
    • Interconnected system: €83/MWh
    • Non interconnected islands: €84,6/MWh
  • Encouragement special provision for licensing the use of Ground Source Heat Pumps (Tax deduction, lower VAT)

Page 6

slide7

The South Aegean volcanic arc and the geothermal fields

associated with it, source [10]

Geothermal potential

Greece one of the most favored European countries regarding geothermal energy

area geodynamically very active

movement of African plate

towards Eurasian plate

  • Deep tectonic structures
  • Young to recent volcanism

large number of swallow geothermal fields both of high and low enthalpy

  • Aegean volcanic arc (Quaternary volcanism)

South Aegean (Milos, Nisiros islands) high enthalpy geothermal fields

  • Miocene volcanism

North Aegean (Lesvos, Chios islands) low enthalpy geothermal fields

  • Basins with recent tectonic activity

low enthalpy fields all over the country

34 (+7) proven and possible fields – 2 of high enth.

Geothermal Map of Greece, source [7]

Page 7

slide8
a

Geothermal Map of Greece, source [9]

Geothermal potential

Page 8

slide9

Geothermal potential

Thermal (low enthalpy fields)

estimated >1000 MWe

Electric power

generation

(high enthalpy fields)

25 MWe proven

>250 MWe probable

Total

geothermal

potential

  • Mild climate conditions
  • Less technical problems when dealing with low T

majority of geothermal waters

(used in direct applications)T< 50ºC

Distribution of water flow rates by temperature range, source [9]

high geothermal potential butlimitedexploitation

(obstacles: licensing problems, lack of proper advising to users, lack of incentive measures by the state, small scale of Greek farming,…)

Page 9

slide10

Electric Power Generation

Before

1985: Installation of double-flash 2-MWe power plant in Milos island

but environmental protests due to H2S emissions

1989: Shut down

Now

no geothermal electricity is produced in the country

Future

exploratory work by PPC for the installation

a binary ORC unit in Lesvos island (8 MWe)

a small binary unit for the Milos desalination plant

Schematic of the organic cycle power production process, source [3]

Page 10

direct use applications
Direct use applications
  • 3 major categories
    • Power production
      • Steam turbine for T>150oC
      • ORC for T>80oC
    • Direct use applications (T>25oC)
    • Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP)(“Erdgekoppelte Wärmepumpenanlagen“)

Summary of the

installed capacity

of direct uses in 2009

  • 18% increase ~2004
  • Most significant increase

in GHP installations

(1.0 MWt/7.2TJ/yr in 2002)

Source [6]

Page 11

slide12

Direct use applications

  • Greenhouse and Soil Heating
    • First greenhouses constructed in the early 1980s
    • Current covered area ≈18.2ha=182•103m2
    • Greenhouses of ≈6.5ha out of operation
    • No real increase since 1995
    • Glasshouses with steel/Al frames67%, plastic film on metallic/wooden frame30%, one installation covered by polycarbonate
    • 33% of geothermal water reinjected after use
    • Distribution of the heating systems

Source [9]

Page 12

slide13

Direct use applications

  • Greenhouse and Soil Heating
    • Soil heating can raise Tsoil by 4-10oC (~ambient conditions)
    • Total area in GR ≈20ha
    • 10 years ago soil heating for offseason asparagus production
      • first attempt in non-covered intensive cultivations
      • Soil heating in Jan.production in Febr./April

higher prices

      • most popular heating system:

1inch spiral PP pipes laid on/under ground surface

      • Novel promising effort with open GHP-system

Page 13

slide14

Direct use applications

  • Space Heating
    • Widely used in C. & N. Europe (half of the installed capacity in Parissince the early 1970s, ca 200 MWt installed capacity )
    • In GR difficult because of cultural and building reasons
    • No new development
    • Traianoupoli’s spa complex (2000m2)
      • Q=60m3/h,
      • Twater,in=52oC, Twater,out=37oC
      • Pth=1050kW
    • Several individual houses and state buildings with “Downhole Heat Exchanger” (DHE) systems
      • U-tube swallow (20m) wells with Twater=60oC directly connected to house radiators no geothermal fluid disposal
      • Natural convection or use of pump
      • Can be applied in 10-50m deep wells with hot water some greek islands
      • Favorable conditions in Klamath Falls-USA, New Zealand

Source: MMX,Greece

Source: [3]

Page 14

direct use applications15
Direct use applications
  • Agricultural drying
    • Drying/dehydration of fruits & vegetables

 simple traditional method: “sun-drying” process,

BUT

    • Tomato dehydration unit in Xanthi since 2001
      • Low-cost geoth. water through finned-tube air heater coilsheating air to T≈55oC
      • Easy modification to dehydrate other products (e.g. peppers, onios, mushrooms, asparagus)

Low- and moderate temperature

geothermal energy

  • Dust
  • Insect contamination
  • Enzymic activities

Page 15

direct use applications16
Aquaculture

Anti-frost protection/heating

of aquaculture ponds

Porto Lagos (1998)

Protection 0.48 ha wintering pond (V=2•104m3) against freezing

Q=40m3/h, Tfluid=34oC

Water from the sea or the Lagos Lagoon

N. Erasmio (1998)

Q=60m3/h, Tfluid=30oC

Water mixed with seawater

Transport distance ≈4.5km through HDPE

Direct use applications
    • Cultivation of green-blue algae spirulina
  • Serres (late 1990s)
    • Need of the dissolved CO2 in the geothermal waters (4kg CO2/m3 H2O)
    • Q=0.5kg/sec, Tfluid=51oC
    • Water  separator  heat exchanger  inspection & cleaning of calcium carbonate
    • Cultivation ponds in a with plastic foil covered greenhouse
    • Production of 3tn (2007)

Two uses of

geothermal waters

  • Protection from bad weather
  • + increased production
  • Increased micro-algal production + reduction of cost

Same fish: gilthead (Dorade)

Source: [9]

Page 16

direct use applications17
Direct use applications
  • Bathing, Spas
    • 40% of the total installed thermal capacity
    • >750 thermal springs recorded
    • >60 thermal spas & bathing centres operating

(half of them in coastal/island areas)

    • Mostly operated during traditional

balneological period (June-Oct.)

    • no development in the last decade
    • 1 spa uses thermal water for space heating & domestic hot water
    • Qtotal>1000kg/sec, T=18÷90oC
    • Certain swimming pools (open and closed) heated by geothermal fluid (Evia island, Aridea)

Source: Hotel Galini

Page 17

direct use applications18
Direct use applications

Low enthalpy

geothermal energy

for desalination

  • Water desalination
  • World Health Organization (WHO): 1000m3/person∙year benchmark level
  • <1% of total freshwater0.007% of global

water stock accessible for human use

  • “Water-rich” nations with

polluted natural waters

  • Places with water scarcity
  • Large seawater desalination countries with low fuel cost
  • Examples in Aspropyrgos, Thessaloniki
  • 2 technologies available:
    • Multistage flash destillation (MSF)
    • Muliple effect destillation (MED) lower energy requirements fewer stages needed compared to MSF
  • Thermal desalination
  • Principle of reverse osmosis
  • Widely used for small/large systems
  • Plants on several islands (e.g. Syros, Myconos) & hotel businesses
  • Membrane desalination

Page 18

direct use applications19
Direct use applications

Remaining concentrated brine

rejected to the sea

  • MED process
  • sea water heated by steam circulated in submerged tubes.
  • Based on the multi-effect distillation rising film principle

at low evaporation tempertures (<70oC) due to low pressure

  • 2 recent projects:
  • Kimolos
    • Q=60m3/h, T=61-62oC, t=188m, Vwater=80m3/day
    • Produced water cost: 1.6euros/m3
  • Milos
    • Implemented through THERMIE programme
    • ORC power generation (P=470kWe) and seawater
    • desalination plant (Q=75m3/h)
    • Produced water cost: 1.02 euros/m3

steam

  • Geothermally heated
  • seawater

low-pressure vessel with

several stages

Condensation

 fresh water in the tank

Source: EGEC, 2007

Source: CRES, 2009

Source: [12]

Page 19

geothermal heat pumps ghp
Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP)
  • Earth-coupled heat pumps (closed system)
    • Twater=0-15oC (heating)/ 20-35oC (cooling)
    • Price ≈ 0,048 euros/kWh
    • Horizontal heat collectors
    • t=0.6-2.0m~climatic conditions
    • dpipe=25/32mm (HDPE) covered with sand
    • Vertical-borehole heat exchangers
    • t=100-120m, D=100-180mm
    • dpipe=25/32/40mm (HDPE) covered with

beton,cement,sand

    • Higher cost
    • Less space & technical problems
    • VDI 4640 (EN 15450)
  • Ground water heat pumps (open system)
    • Twater=10-30oC / 5-25oC (water from sea, river, lakes)
    • Price ≈ 0,038 euros/kWh
    • Chemical analysis of fluid
    • Heat exchanger of Ti
    • Use of filter

Source: CRES

Source: CRES

Source: CRES

Page 20

geothermal heat pumps ghp21
Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP)

Summer-cooling

Winter-heating

  • Pump
    • Mainly water source heat pumps (30-50% less energy than air source heat pumps)
    • Reversible pumps heating & cooling
    • Efficiency
      • COP: Coefficient Of Performance
      • SPF: Seasonal Performance Factor
      •  performance of the system during

heating/cooling period

      • Closed system: COP/SPF= 3.5-5.0
      • Open system: 4.0-6.5
  • Heating/Cooling systems in the building
    • ηheating max T↓ sub-floor,

behind the wall systems with fan coils

    • ηcooling max T↑ roof-, behind the wall systems

│ΔQ│:change in heat at the heat reservoir

ΔW : work consumed by the heat pump

Source: CRES

Source: CRES

Page 21

geothermal heat pumps ghp22
Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHP)
  • Pylaia-Thessaloniki Town Hall
    • Closed system with

21 vertical heat exchangers (t=80m),d=6in

    • 11 GHPs, Ptotal=370kWth
    • Several fan-coils & 1 central climatic unit
    • COPh=4, COPc=3.5
    • founded by CRES
    • In operation since 2002
  • CRES office building
    • In operation during the last 4 years
    • Pth=14,5kW, Pc=21,5kW
    • Water source heat pump
    • Qwater=1,5m3/h from ground water, Twater=18oC

Source: CRES

Source: CRES

Page 22

slide23

Future Outlook

during the past years…

  • Fish farming
  • Vegetable/fruit dehydration
  • Spirulina cultivation
  • Water desalination
  • Stagnation of greenhouse and soil heating
  • Diversification of geothermal applications
  • Small development of Spas
  • Some projects have not reached the state of use

(new legislation for balneology and associated tourism)

(e.g. desalination plant of Kimolos island, desalination project of Milos island)

  • No production of electricity
  • Increase 65% of the installed
  • thermal capacity (direct uses)
  • the last 5 years
  • 75 MWt (2004) 124 MWt (2009)

however…

  • new legislation provisions
  • air-conditioning sector ↑
  • promotion campaign
  • familiarization with the
  • “new” technology

why?

the future…

geothermal heat pumps installations!

(+ ORC power plants ?)

Page 23

slide24

References

  • Mendrinos, D. et al (2007). Geothermal exploration in Greece. Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Greece.
  • Fytikas, M.and Papachristou, M. (2002). Basic facts about geothermal energy: Energy, characteristics and its spreading around the world and Greece. International Summer School .
  • Andritsos, N. and Fytikas, M. (2002). Geothermal applications in Greece with emphasis on the Aegean islands. International Summer School.
  • Fytikas, M. et al. (2000). Geothermal exploration and development activities in Greece during 1995-1999. World Geothermal Congress.
  • Clauser, C. (2006). Geothermal Energy. In: K. Heinloth (ed), Landolt-Bornstein, Group VIII: Advanced Materials and Technologies, Vol 3: Energy Technologies, Subvol C:Renewable Energies, Springer Verlag. Heidelberg-Berlin, 493-604.
  • Andritsos, N. et al. (2009). Greek experience with geothermal energy use in agriculture and food processing industry. International Geothermal Days, Slovakia 2009. Conference and Summer School.
  • Fytikas, M. et al. (2005). Greek geothermal update 2000-2004. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005. Antalya, Turkey, 24-25 April 2005.
  • Koroneos, J. C. and Fytikas, M. (1999). Energy potential of geothermal energy in Greece. European Geothermal Conference, 28-30 September 1999, Switzerland.
  • Andritsos, N. et al. (2007). Update and characteristics of low-Enthalpy geothermal applications in Greece. Proceedings European Geothermal Congress 2007, Unterhanching, Germany, 30 May-1 June 2007.
  • Hatziyannis, E. G. (2007). Update of the geothermal situation in Greece. Proceedings European Geothermal Congress 2007, Unterhanching, Germany, 30 May-1 June 2007.
  • Elíasson Lárus. Presentation: Geothermal potential in Europe. Enex.
  • Fytikas, M. et al.(2005).Geothermal Research in Vounalia Area, Milos Island for Seawater Desalination and Power Production

Page 24