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ENVI 121 Life in the Ocean Dr. Ron Kaufmann kaufmann@sandiego.edu Shiley Center 277 (x5904) Office Hrs: Tue, Thu 8:00-10:30 www.sandiego.edu/~kaufmann/envi121/envi121.html AIM: rskusd What is Marine Biology? Biology of organisms inhabiting the ocean

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envi 121 life in the ocean
ENVI 121Life in the Ocean
  • Dr. Ron Kaufmann
    • kaufmann@sandiego.edu
    • Shiley Center 277 (x5904)
    • Office Hrs: Tue, Thu 8:00-10:30
    • www.sandiego.edu/~kaufmann/envi121/envi121.html
    • AIM: rskusd
slide2
What is Marine Biology?
    • Biology of organisms inhabiting the ocean
    • Marine biologists study different things at different levels
    • Related to oceanography, particularly biological oceanography
      • Coastal vs. Open Ocean
      • Perspective: Organismal vs. Environmental
    • Studying marine organisms requires understanding of physical/chemical environment
slide3
History
    • Early
      • Aristotle – Described forms, recognized gills
      • Explorers (Eriksson, Columbus, Magellan, Drake) – Learned about winds, currents, physical characteristics
      • Cook (1768-1779) – Took full-time naturalist on crew
      • Darwin (1831-1836) – Sailed on HMS Beagle
        • Collected plankton
        • Proposed theory of coral atoll formation
        • Studied and described barnacles
slide4
History
    • Oceanographic Expeditions
      • Began in mid 1800s
      • Edward Forbes (BBBB - British)
        • Father of Biological Oceanography
        • Sampled sea floor life extensively
        • First to recognize that different organisms are found at different depths
      • Before Forbes’ time, many people regarded the deep ocean as azoic
      • Early work by Wyville Thomson showed life on deep sea floor
slide5
History
    • The Challenger Expedition (1872-1876)
      • British scientists convinced government to fund oceanographic expedition
      • HMS Challenger
        • Refitted warship
        • Departed England in Dec 1872
        • Expedition lasted three and a a half years
        • Collected samples and provided unprecedented insights into diversity of marine life
        • Data took 19 years to publish in 50 large volumes
        • First extensive exploration of life in the ocean
        • Paved the way for modern marine biology
slide7
Marine Labs
    • Stazione Zoologica (Naples)
      • Founded in 1872 by German scientists
    • Marine Biological Lab (Plymouth, England)
      • Founded in 1879
    • Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole)
      • Established in 1888
    • Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SD)
      • Opened in 1903
    • Hopkins Marine Station (CA)
    • Friday Harbor Marine Laboratory (WA)
slide8
Modern Marine Biology
    • Involved the development of new technology for studying marine life
    • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging)
      • Developed during World War II to help engage in submarine warfare
sonar
SONAR

Fig. 1.6

slide10
Modern Marine Biology
    • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging)
    • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
      • Invented in late 1940s by Cousteau and Gagnan
      • Allows scientists to work underwater for extended periods of time
slide11
Modern Marine Biology
    • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging)
    • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
    • Oceanographic Research Vessels
      • Ships (Melville, Revelle, Thompson)
      • Submersibles (Alvin, Johnson Sea Link)
      • ROVs/AUVs (Jason, Tiburon, Ventana)
      • Other vessels (FLIP)
slide12

DSV Alvin

R/V Thomas G. Thompson

R/V FLIP

slide13

ROV Jason

Theseus

IFREMER AUV

slide14
Modern Marine Biology

SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging)

SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)

Oceanographic Research Vessels

Computers

Processing of large data sets

Collection of sophisticated information

slide15

Link

Fig. 1.14

slide17
Modern Marine Biology
    • SONAR (SOund NAvigation Ranging)
    • SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)
    • Oceanographic Research Vessels
    • Computers
    • Remote Sensing
      • Use of satellites to monitor ocean
      • Especially useful for studying large scale features and processes