Do we know beans?. Donna M. Winham, DrPH Department of Nutrition Arizona State University Polytechnic Mesa, Arizona, USA July 22, 2008. My interests in beans. Do beans make a difference in health? (biomedical trials) Cholesterol reduction Glycemic response or blood sugar control
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Donna M. Winham, DrPH
Department of Nutrition
Arizona State University Polytechnic
Mesa, Arizona, USA
July 22, 2008
Do beans make a difference in health? (biomedical trials)
Glycemic response or blood sugar control
How to keep beans in the diet?
Low-income minorities, Hispanics, AA
General consumer beliefs
Review some of the known health benefits of beans
Suggest future research directions
Possible funding sources
What is it?
Long-term health effects of events and exposures in early life
In other words, recognition of the influence and effects of each life stage on later health
Diet and lifestyle effect
length of life
Important: Behavior patterns in childhood continue as adults
Parents teach children food preferences and tastes
Focus on getting children to like them ...
Target parents to encourage beans with their children
Emphasize health benefits as appropriate for age & life stage
Usually emphasis on middle-aged adults
Influential group for their children, grandchildren, and their elderly parents
Epidemiology studies of legumes and reduced risk of coronary heart disease
Bazzano et al., 2001 NHANES I national data. Legumes eaten 4+ time per week associated with 22% lower risk of CHD over 19 yrs follow-up
Since 1980s, clinical studies have shown improvements in cholesterol mostly using baked beans, navy or white beans.
Chickpeas similar effect (4%)
Pinto beans more recent (~8%)
BHA funded studies- ASU & USDA-ND
Many other varieties & species not investigated
Will they be same? Maybe – but need to investigate – black beans, red kidneys for P. vulgaris sp.
Other species? Black-eyed peas; favas; lentils, peas!
fruit & vegetable consumption linked with cancer reduction
Seventh Day Adventist health study suggests that eating legumes >2x/week reduces colon cancer risk by 47%
(Singh & Frazer, 1998)
Low glycemic index foods may protect against type 2 DM
Legumes are high-fiber, slow release carbohydrates with a low glycemic index
Reference is 100
GI values of individual beans low:
Canned baked beans (48)
Pinto beans (42)
Split peas (32)
Butter beans, lentils (29)
Kidney beans (28)
Black beans (20)
Low GI Foods may lower risk for developing type 2 DM
Improve glycemic control
Improve blood lipid profile
Improve insulin sensitivity
Folate, fiber, satiety, minerals
Higher nutrients than some foods, e.g. French fries
Time to establish bean eating habit
Quick and easy snack or meal
Japan – soy, tofu, natto, miso
Sweden – brown beans, peas
Mediterranean – lentils, chickpeas, white beans
7-8% reduction in mortality hazard ratio for every 20 gram increase in legumes per day
Darmadi-Blackberry et al., 2004 Asia Pacific J Clin Nut
Despite 20+ years of the fruit and vegetable message,
...“Mean intakes of dark green vegetables, orange vegetables, and legumes are one third or less of recommended amounts...”
Guenther PM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 106(9), Sep. 2006
“Aim for this much every week:Dark green vegetables= 3 cups Orange vegetables = 2 cups Dry beans & peas = 3 cupsStarchy vegetables = 3 cups Other vegetables = 6 1/2 cups”
Mean daily intakes of fruit and vegetable subgroups, as a proportion of amounts recommended,* by adults age 31-50 years, estimated from the 1999-2000 NHANES
Dark Green Vegetables
*Assuming 2 servings per cup
Note: M = male and F = female
Guenther PM, et al. J Am Diet Assoc. 106(9), Sep. 2006
Several directions to take to increase bean consumption
Personal health benefits
Inter-related to each other
(Not exclusive list)
Source: TNS telephone omnibus, September 2006, n=1,004
*Excluding green beans, baked beans and Pork & Beans
Continue promotion of the ‘beans are a vegetable’ message
Not just consumers! Need to target dietitians, school lunch, nurses, MDs, other health professionals, etc.
Name and food class issues – word ‘legume’ misunderstood as is ‘bean’
Green bean consumption is good too, so should we care?
White potatoes are the most common vegetable eaten by Americans – often as French fries
Beans have similarities to potatoes
Hot side dish
Easy to prepare
Beans offer more than potatoes for some key nutrients such as:
...and for about the same amount of calories and a lower glycemic index
Plus beans have greater variety than white or red potatoes
Based on two BHA studies using the recommended serving size of ½ cup of pinto beans, we found that:
50% or fewer of the people ever experienced increased flatulence the first week
By the 4th week of consumption, only 6-23% still had increased gas
Too much worry?
Address issues of flatulence openly with consumers
Research study needed on specific perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption by consumers
We did this, but secondary to study design
Address (mis)perceptions about dried legume varieties
Length of time to cook – crockpot; microwave; faster cooking varieties, e.g. lentils
Negativity towards canned foods as ‘unhealthy’
Must be scientifically sound and credible
Targeted across the life cycle to specific group needs
Multiple messages must not conflict
Cholesterol lowering effects of other legume varieties, ex: black-eyed peas, fava beans
Need documented individual effects before proposing a mixture of legume types
Dose response – is ½ cup 2 x day ‘better’ than ½ cup?
U.S. Grocery Shopping Trends, Food Marketing Institute 2007
Legume effects on lowering the glycemic response or after meal rise in blood sugar in:
those with diabetes
Is this solely a function of fiber or ?
Perceptions of beans by clinical and nutrition health professionals
Baseline data on opinions & knowledge
If not recommending, hard to boost usage by consumers
Legumes and athletic performance at several levels
Children’s sports teams, e.g. soccer, baseball
Moms want what is good for their children and sports are important to many communities
Changes in traditional diets
Why does bean consumption decline?
Mexican women in Phoenix
Only 28% of recent immigrants surveyed eating beans 5-6 tx/wk!
93% buy bagged beans
Canned brands - Rosarita, El Mexicano
Iron deficiency anemia and low folate levels major health problems
Beans may improve levels
High in content, but may not be bioavailable in all situations
Further research needed because important opportunity to improve global nutrition and child outcomes
Many beans more nutritious than other staple food products such as cassava, taro, or rice.
Cultural acceptability of eating more beans or incorporating beans into current diet patterns
“New” researchers should be given a chance to prove themselves
Be alert to track record of researchers though – benchmarks for quality research – peer review
If sounds too good to be true, it probably is!
High nutrient value and their role in reducing the risk of certain diseases been known for decades
Yet bean consumption lags far behind recommended levels
Qualitative and survey research needed to define myths and design strategies needed to dispel them
Will aid in closing the consumption gap between recommendations and practice
Further research to answer questions and substantiate health claims to promote bean consumption based on sound science.
Look for research opportunities that benefit industry and communities as well as sales