Differentiated Instruction usingDimensions of Depth Dr. Sandra Kaplan's Model for Differentiation Presented by Kirsten Kershaw O’Leary
Dimensions of Depth The Study of Disciplines Ethics Details The Big Idea Patterns Change Over Time Different Perspectives Trends Unanswered Questions Relationships Rules
The Three Components • Key questions can be used in the context of lesson plans to probe understanding and to prompt students during discussions. • Thinking skills can be used to initiate the type of cognitive operation or thinking that could best prompt each of the dimensions of DEPTH or COMPLEXITY. • Resources listed are the most logical references in which to locate the type of information required by each of the dimensions of DEPTH or COMPLEXITY.
The Study of Disciplines • Key Questions • What terms or words are specific to the work of the ________________? • What tools does the ___________ use? • Thinking Skills • Categorize • Identify • Resources • Texts • Biographies Three Little Pigs: A contractor would use words like mortar to build the house made from bricks. What other words would help understand this story?
Details • Key Questions • What are its attributes? • What features characterize this? • What specific elements define this? • What distinguishes this from other things? • Thinking Skills • Identify traits • Describe • Differentiate • Compare/contrast • Prove with evidence • Observe • Resources • Texts • Biographies Three Little Pigs: How are the three pigs different? The same? How would you compare yourself to each of the three little pigs?
Patterns • Key Questions • What are the reoccurring events? • What elements, events, ideas, are repeated over time? • What was the order of events? • How can we predict what will come next? • Thinking Skills • Determine relevant vs. irrelevant • Summarize • Make analogies • Discriminate between same and different • Relate • Resources • Time lines • Other chronological lists Three Little Pigs: What did the three pigs learn from these events? How would you have handled this situation differently?
Trends • Key Questions • What ongoing factors have influenced this study? • What factors have contributed to this study? • Thinking Skills • Prioritize • Determine cause and effect • Predict • Relate • Formulate questions • Hypothesize • Resources • Journals • Newspapers • Graphs • Charts Three Little Pigs: What influences could have changed the behavior of the three pigs? Predict what would happen if the pigs had not killed the wolf.
Unanswered Questions • Key Questions • What ongoing factors have influenced this study? • What factors have contributed to this study? • Thinking Skills • Prioritize • Determine cause and effect • Predict • Relate • Formulate questions • Hypothesize • Resources • Journals • Newspapers • Graphs • Charts Three Little Pigs: Which pig was the older of the three? Were any of them girls? If there were four pigs, what would the fourth house be built of?
Rules • Key Questions • How is this structured? • What are the stated and unstated causes related to the description or explanation of what we are studying? • Thinking Skills • Generalize • Hypothesize • Judge credibility • Resources • Editorials • Essays • Laws • Theories Three Little Pigs: How is this story similar to other children’s tales? What is the moral of this story?
Ethics • Key Questions • What dilemmas or controversies are involved in this area or topic? • What elements can be identified that reflect bias, prejudice, and discrimination? • Thinking Skills • Prove with evidence • Generalize • Identify the main idea • Resources • Editorials • Essays • Autobiographies • Journals Three Little Pigs: Who was right, the wolf or the pigs? Is this story still relevant today?
The Big Idea • Key Questions • What overarching statement best describes what is being studied? • What general statement includes what is being studied? • Thinking Skills • Prove with evidence • Generalize • Identify the main idea • Resources • Quotations • Discipline-related essays Three Little Pigs: Can you explain this story in one concise sentence?
Change Over Time • Key Questions • How are the ideas related between the past, present, future? • How are these ideas related within or during a particular time period? • How has time affected the information? • How and why do things change or remain the same? • Thinking Skills • Relate • Sequence • Order • Resources • Time lines • Text Biographies • Autobiographies • Historical documents Three Little Pigs: Do you think the pigs learned anything from this experience? What do you think they would do if another wolf came along?
Different Perspectives • Key Questions • What are the opposing viewpoints? • How do different people and characters see this event or situation? • Thinking Skills • Argue • Determine bias • Classify • Resources • Biographies • Autobiographies • Mythologies • Legends vs. Non-fiction Accounts • Debates Three Little Pigs: How would the story be different if told from the wolf’s perspective?
Relationships • Key Questions • What are common elements among topics from the different disciplines? • How does this idea/topic/concept relate to other disciplines? • How do topics/ideas from across the disciplines contribute meaning to this idea? • Thinking Skills • Relate • Compare/contrast • Differentiate • Synthesize • Evaluate • Resources • Original and secondary sources • Internet searches • Textbooks • Encyclopedias Three Little Pigs: Re-write the story, but instead of pigs, write about three middle school students.
Bibliography • Facilitating the Understanding of DEPTH and COMPLEXITY. Texas Performance Standards Project, 10 May 2008 http://www.texaspsp.org/all/DepthComplexity.pdf • What is Differentiated Instruction? Visalia GATE PAC, 10 May 2008 http://www2.visalia.k12.ca.us/mineralking/differentiated%20instruction.htm Standards GATE 1:3 The program is planned and organized to provide articulated learning experiences across subjects and grade levels. http://www.cde.ca.gov/fg/fo/r12/documents/gatestandards.doc