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Designing and Conducting Exercises to Implement and Test Your ERP. Objectives. Describe why it’s important to test your ERP Evaluate the types of exercises that can be used in testing your ERP Understanding how to conduct a tabletop exercise. Why Test Your ERP?.

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives
  • Describe why it’s important to test your ERP
  • Evaluate the types of exercises that can be used in testing your ERP
  • Understanding how to conduct a tabletop exercise
why test your erp
Why Test Your ERP?
  • Evaluate if your ERP plans, policies, and procedures are adequate and can be implemented.
  • Reveal ERP weaknesses and gaps.
  • The more you prepare and test the more individual performance and organizational coordination and communications will improve.
  • Train new and existing personnel and clarify roles and responsibilities.
  • Establish relationships with local, state, and federal agencies.
  • Update your ERP
  • Satisfy possible regulatory requirements.
training options
Training Options
  • Orientation- This is just a paperwork exercise where you brainstorm/discuss rolls and responsibilities. If you find an error, you discuss how it will be fixed or who will handle the situation.
  • Tabletop Exercises-This is where you are given a scenario and you start to put your ERP into action.
  • Functional Exercises-Where you start to deploy and utilize your resources on a limited scale.
  • Full Scale Drill-Full scale, bring out all the equipment, everyone suits up exercise.
orientation exercises
Orientation Exercises
  • Informal with little preparation
  • No simulation
  • Discussion and assignment of roles & responsibilities
  • Introduction to policies, procedures, plans & responsibilities
  • Solves problems as a group
  • Involve developing scenarios that describe potential problems and information necessary to address problem
tabletop exercises
Tabletop Exercises
  • Discussion guided by a facilitator(s)
  • Utilizes previously developed scenarios with information necessary to address problem
  • Effective tool to simulate emergency event and practice ERP procedures
  • No simulators and no attempt to arrange elaborate facilities or communications
  • One or two evaluators to observe proceedings and progress
tabletop exercises cont d
Tabletop Exercises (Cont’d)
  • Murphy’s Law can come into play in this type of exercise
  • Exercise does not take place in real-time (I.e. 1 hr of exercise = 4 hrs real time)
  • Success is determined by feedback from participants and the impact this feedback has on the evaluation and revision of policies, plans, and procedures
functional exercise
Functional Exercise
  • Policy & coordination personnel practice emergency response
  • Stressful & realistic simulation
  • Takes place in real time
  • Emphasizes emergency functions
  • Command center is activated
full scale exercise
Full Scale Exercise
  • Takes place in real time
  • Employs real people & equipment
  • Coordinates many agencies
  • Tests several emergency functions
  • Activates command center
    • Purpose is to provide a place where local government officials can work together. Three main groups: Policy, Coordination, & Operations
  • Produces high stress
  • Cost is a factor
  • Agencies may need to respond to a real event during exercise
how a tabletop exercise works
How a Tabletop Exercise Works
  • Problem discovery area, can involve some brainstorming
  • Problems are tackled one at a time
  • Low Stress environment
who can conduct tabletop exercise
Who can conduct Tabletop Exercise?

Regional group of water systems, interconnected systems, individual systems, the state

Who should initiate Tabletop Exercise?

  • The Water System Manager
who should participate in tabletop exercise minimum participation
Who should participate in Tabletop Exercise (Minimum Participation)
  • Water Utility
  • State - Emergency Responders
  • Local - Police, Fire, ER, Health Department
  • Local – Government, Management, Officials – (Town Manager, City Manager, County Manager, Mayor or Other Chief Executive)
who should participate in tabletop exercise expanded participation
Who should participate in Tabletop Exercise (Expanded Participation)
  • Emergency Management
  • Public Information Officer
  • Emergency Communications Agency
  • Public Works Department
  • Mapping Department
  • Elected Officials (real or role-play)
  • DWB
who should participate in tabletop exercise broader agency participation
Who should participate in Tabletop Exercise (Broader Agency Participation)
  • Additional State Emergency Management (State Homeland Security?)
  • Additional Law Enforcement Agencies (FBI)
  • State Health Agency
  • CDC
  • EPA
  • Media (real or role play)
tabletop exercise room and setup
Tabletop Exercise Room and Setup
  • Large room and/or multiple rooms needed (can be done at remote locations)
  • Provide tables for agencies, table agency signs, nametags, if needed
  • In large exercises, microphone recommended at the command post table for apprising all participants of key developments and decisions
  • Audio / visual aids add realism
tabletop exercises before during and after
Tabletop Exercises: Before, During, and After

Before – preparing for the tabletop exercise

  • Access needs
  • Define the scope
  • Write a purpose statement
  • Define objectives
  • Compose a narrative
  • Write major and detailed events
  • List expected actions
tabletop exercises before during and after cont d
Tabletop Exercises: Before, During, and After (Cont’d)

During – As the events unfold

  • Record of communication
  • Document actions initiated
  • Identify problems encountered
  • List solutions used
  • Itemize changes needed
  • After: conduct post exercise meeting, lessons learned, unanswered questions, areas for refinement for future exercises or ERP
tabletop exercises before during and after cont d1
Tabletop Exercises: Before, During, and After (Cont’d)

After – Once the emergency has expired

  • Conduct post-exercise meeting
  • Review lessons learned
  • Identify unanswered questions
  • Critique areas for refinement for future exercises or ERP updates
  • List what went right/worked well
types of scenarios and triggers
Scenarios

Raw or finished water contamination

Loss of major system component

Loss of computer or control systems

Severe weather event

Others

Triggers

An unusual number of persons become sick

A threat is made against the water system

A breach of security and / or evidence of tampering is found

Types of Scenarios and Triggers
tabletop scenario example
Tabletop Scenario Example

A lightening strike ignites a forest fire. The area of the fire is serviced by a 12’ regulator. There is a small power substation near the fire and if the fire spreads it could threaten the substation. The fire is at its full force. Even though the fire department claims that they have been able to contain the fire, the water pressure seems to be dropping off. Residents are complaining about low pressure and dirty water.

post exercise assessment
Post Exercise Assessment
  • Backbone of the exercise
  • What part of the response was effective
  • What part of the response failed
  • What was learned from the exercise
  • What can we do better
exercise lessons learned
Exercise Lessons Learned
  • Preplanning must include role for all groups
  • Allow time for scenario to develop and play out
  • Plan for someone to handle role of those not present (e.g. Governor, Press)
  • Have sufficient facilitators on hand to control and monitor progress of the exercise
  • Be realistic
exercise lessons learned cont
Exercise Lessons Learned cont.
  • Stop and assess as needed
  • Stress ground rules at the start, make participants aware of confusion which may exist (during exercise and in real event)
  • Allow sufficient time for post exercise debriefing
  • Do not worry if you do not have all the answers
  • Expand exercises to field drills; include media role played by public information officer (PIO)
response lessons learned
Response Lessons Learned
  • Use as opportunity to practice utility specific ERP
  • Be realistic (natural disaster scenario, spills, terrorism, blackout)
  • Be realistic for those who cannot be on-site
  • Document all unanswered questions, don’t let this slow the exercise down (make some assumptions and move on)
  • Seek and share answers later
response lessons learned cont d
Response Lessons Learned (Cont’d)
  • Keep dialog going
  • Practice, Practice, Practice
  • Build on each tabletop exercise to reach field exercise or full scale drill
  • Don’t forget--dealing with public, media, how to provide alternate sources of drinking water
advantages and disadvantages of tabletop exercises
Advantages

Modest commitment of time, resources, and money

Effective in reviewing plans, procedures, and policies

Good way at acquainting key personnel with emergency responsibilities, procedures, and one another

Disadvantages

Lacks realism and so may not provide true test of an emergency system’s capabilities

Only superficial exercise of plans, procedures, and staff capabilities

Does not provide a practical way to demonstrate system overload

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tabletop Exercises
resources
Resources
  • EPA Response Protocol Toolbox
    • http://www.asdwa.org/ Click on Security
  • EPA is currently in the process of developing a CD ROM to assist the water supply community as they plan to conduct tabletop exercises.
    • http://www.asdwa.org/ Click on Security then ASDWA's Webcast on Tabletop Exercises 5-04
  • FEMA online exercise design class
    • http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is/is139lst.asp