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Designing a Bulk Sodium Hypochlorite System

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    1. Designing a Bulk Sodium Hypochlorite System Presented by Patrick H. Allman III General Manager Odyssey Manufacturing Co.

    3. Disinfection Options June 2003

    4. Disinfection Options June 2005

    5. Sodium Hypochlorite Bleach Liquid Bleach Liquid Chlorine Soda Bleach Liquor Chlorine

    6. CHEMICAL FORMULA NaOCl

    7. Manufacturing Process 2NaOH + Cl2 => NaOCl + H20 + Heat

    8. Properties of Sodium Hypochlorite Mildly Corrosive Has Free Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) pH=12.5 to 13 Pale Yellow Solution, 12.5% By Volume Non-Flammable Incompatible with Many Other Chemicals Relatively Short Shelf Life - Contaminants, Heat And UV Cause Decomposition

    9. Contrary to Whites Handbook of Chlorination One Gallon of 120 GPL or 12 Trade Percent Equals 1 lb of Cl gas

    10. BLEACH DEGRADATION Primary 3NaOCl = 2NaCl + NaClO3 (Sodium Chlorate) Secondary 2NaOCl = 2NaCl + O2 (Gassing) Factors: Heat UV (e.g., Sunlight) Impurities (Primarily Heavy Metals) Strength (Rate = K (OCl-]2

    13. Sodium Hypochlorite Degradation Average Manufacturer @ 70 Degrees F Time of Manufacture - 12.5 Trade Percent 2 Days Later 12.43 Trade Percent 7 Days Later 12.25 Trade Percent 14 Days Later 12.01 Trade Percent 21 Days Later 11.78 Trade Percent 28 Days Later 11.55 Trade Percent 35 Days Later 11.34 Trade Percent

    14. Sodium Hypochlorite Degradation Average Manufacturer @ 80 Degrees F Time of Manufacture - 12.5 Trade Percent 2 Days Later 12.34 Trade Percent 7 Days Later 11.96 Trade Percent 14 Days Later 11.47 Trade Percent 21 Days Later 11.01 Trade Percent 28 Days Later 10.59 Trade Percent 35 Days Later 10.21 Trade Percent

    15. Use of Pilot or Temporary Systems To Maintain Continuous Disinfection During Conversion Construction To size pumps and bulk storage tanks To Determine Finished Water Quality To Test different types of Equipment Familiarize Operations Personnel with Sodium Hypochlorite Verify Operations in Unusual Situations

    16. Sodium Hypochlorite System Design Delivery Bulk Storage Chemical Feed Equipment Piping

    17. Delivery to End-User Bulk Delivery in 5,000-gallon tanker truck Poured from Small Delivery 26 Flat-Bed Truck w/installed HDLPE totes or tanks 300-gallon totes (forklift) 55 gallon drums 15, 30 gallon totes 2.5 gallon jugs

    19. Bulk Delivery Site Should Have . . . 2 Supported Male Connection w/Cap Bag Filter 1 micron Safety Shower/Eye Wash/Running Water Security/Lights Hook Up Protection / Labeled Lines Proper Venting for Blow Off Catch Bucket Accessible Roadway and Turn Around

    20. Fill Line Air Pressure 15 to 25 psi Trucks Carry Up to 60 Hose Long Length Consider Upsizing to 3 Length Proportional to Offload Time Maximum Length 200 Proper supports 45 Degree Down Keep Line Vented

    21. Bulk Storage Tanks Location Covered vs. Non-Covered / Other Chemicals On-site Air Conditioning Storage Spaces Dilution of Stored Material Use Soft Water Type (FRP vs. Bulk) Size or Volume and Number (10 to 40 days) Use of Day Tanks (F.S. 62-555) Measuring Daily Usage (F.S. 62-555) Tie Downs

    22. Storage Tank Fittings Vents (2 or 3) Use Vinyl Bug Screen Drains Minimize # of Tank Penetrations Fill Line Fill from Top not Side or Bottom Overflow Line Maximize Use of Tank Sight glasses Type/Operational Necessity Tanks Squat - Flexible Connection at Bottom Feed Line - Pulling Out of the Top or Bottom Bottom Fittings Types/Titanium is only acceptable Metal Gaskets Viton Only; No EPDM

    23. Containment Requirements Florida Statues/RQ HDLPE Tubs Poured Wall / Concrete Block Wall Coatings Wall Penetrations

    24. Types of Piping Schedule 80 PVC Most Commonly Used Schedule 80 CPVC Plasticization Schedule 40 Should Not Be Used Kynar Expensive/Workmanship Issues Carbon Steel Lined with Teflon or Kynar Typically used in Power Plants; Beware of Sizing Issues

    25. PVC Applications: Socket Welding vs. Threaded Connections Minimize the Use of Threaded Connections Use Stainless Steel Re-inforced Fittings on Threaded Joints When Possible Pump Discharge Fittings If you must use a threaded connection, two wraps of Teflon Tape only Use proper glue procedure 45-Degree Bevel, Debur, Clean/Prime, and Glue Each End. Use proper Glue: IPS WELDON CPVC 724 24 to 48 hrs setup time (grey) IPS EZ WELDON WET R DRY PVC 725 10 minutes under low pressure (blue)

    26. Valves Use the same model of Valve throughout the entire project; Standardize! True Union with Viton o-rings No EPDM Bleed Hole for Pressure Buildup Socket Weld Ends, No Threaded Connections

    27. Piping to Chemical Feed Equipment Purpose Minimize Off-Gassing Pipe Sizing Optimize velocity Minimize Length Maximum 50 Stack Vents/Sightglasses Carry Off Gases Minimize Bends Keep Gases in Solution Use of Flexible Piping/Tubing Eliminate High Spots Piping Pitch Use of Strainers Catch PVC shavings

    28. Chemical Feed Equipment Eductors vs. Positive Displacement Pumps PD Pumps Peristaltic vs. Diaphragm Pump Skids vs. Wall /Floor Mounting Height of Equipment Suction Lift Issues Degasification Valves When To Use Vapor Lock Issues Bleed Valve or Vent Control Issues Flow Meters / 4-20 ma 99% of Most Operational Problems Come from Over-sizing Pumps!

    29. Chemical Injection Piping Proper Sizing of Pipe Minimize Off-gassing and Provide Precision Control of Feed Rate Backpressure Valves at End of Pipe Improve Feed Rate Control Maximum Length of Injection Point 500 Turnover Time Less than 4 hours Use of Solution or Carry Water Design of Injection Points Mixing Issues Minimizing Calcification/Scaling

    30. Water Quality Issues pH Boost - Typically .3 to .4 Units (.1 with OSG) THMs Typically slight reduction (from Chlorine Gas) Bromates Can Be Problematic with Ozone and Some Salt Sources (OSG); Ensure Quality Supplier Chlorates May Be Regulated in the Future; Ensure Quality Supplier Chlorides/Sodium Ensure Quality Supplier Alga Control Bulk Strength as effective as Chlorine Gas Chloramine Formation May be slightly more effective than Chlorine Gas because of pH shift

    31. SYSTEM DESIGN SUMMARY Proper Engineering Design Essential To: Eliminate Problems from Any Bleach Gassing Eliminate Calcium Carbonate Buildup Minimize Product Degradation Improve Life of Equipment Minimize Maintenance Ensure No Startup Problems Eliminate Problems from Using a Corrosive Material

    32. Information Sources for Bleach Chlorine Institute Pamphlet 96 AWWA Standard B300-99 ANSI/NSF Standard 60 AWWA Reference Library Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Sodium Hypochlorite Manufacturer Equipment Fabricators (e.g. Pump Skids)