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Deregowski (1972) Pictorial perception and culture . Focus on the cube. Deregowski (1972) Pictorial perception and culture. what is odd about this?. Old woman or young woman?. Look at this picture for 3 seconds then draw it from memory. A vase or two faces?. Visual Perception. The question

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visual perception
Visual Perception
  • The question
  • Is the world OUT THERE to be seen? Bottom Up perception (Gibson)
  • If perception is innate Then we draw the world as it is
visual perception1
Visual Perception
  • Do we construct the world that we see?
  • Top Down perception (Gregory)
  • If perception is learned Then we draw what we THINK we see and what we think we see has been learned
top down visual perception
Top Down visual perception?
  • The ‘switch’ you see is evidence for GREGORY
is the left vertical really shorter
IS the left vertical really shorter?

more evidence for Top Down?

and what on earth is this
And what on earth is this?

more evidence for Top Down?

and think about this
And think about this…….

The red squares ARE the same colour and size

So why do they look different?

deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture2
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • The question
  • Does culture affect the way we SEE pictures (nurture)
  • Cross cultural studies can help to answer this question
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture3
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • The method
  • DEREGOWSKI performed a review of a series of CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture4
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (1) late 19th century
  • Robert Laws & Mrs Donald Frazer
    • they were missionaries
  • showed Africans ‘European style’ Pictures (e.g. of elephants)
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture5
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture

The Africans were afraid of them….. they thought they were real elephants

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (2) William Hudson
  • “the key to understanding pictures lies in depth cues”
  • WE LEARN three rules
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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • DEPTH CUES - Rule ONE
  • larger objects are perceived as nearer
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture8
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • DEPTH CUES - Rule TWO
  • overlap - obscured objects seen as further away
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture9
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • DEPTH CUES - Rule THREE
  • perspective - lines converge as they get further away (railway lines)
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture10
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Showed this picture to Africans
  • when asked “what is the man doing” participants could not say which animal was ‘being speared’
  • (did not seem to use depth cues)
  • classed as two dimensional viewers
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture11
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (3) William Hudson
  • Zambian children - shown picture of two squares connected by a ‘rod’
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture12
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (3) William Hudson
  • Given sticks and modelling clay to ‘build a model’ of what they saw
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture13
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (3) William Hudson
  • 2-D viewers built two dimensional models

British primary school children usually try to build 3 dimensional models (boxes)

deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture14
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (4) The impossible trident
  • Zambian primary school children asked to draw this figure
  • 2-D viewers found it easiest!
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture15
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (4) The impossible trident
  • 3-D viewers found it harder - they spent longer looking at it (Why?)

Are you a 2-D or a 3-D viewer

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (5) Richard GREGORY
  • asked unskilled African viewers to adjust a spot of light so that it lay at the same depth as an object in the
  • ‘spearing the antelope picture’
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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (5) example - try this out

Where will the pointer be if it is on the nearest object?

2-D viewers cannot do this

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Study (6) split style drawing

African children prefer the split style

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • The cross cultural studies
  • What can we conclude?
  • If different cultures use different rules to construct their pictures it follows that one culture may not be able to interpret the drawings of another culture
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture20
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Do YOU understand these symbols?

8 9 b v

& * ( N

what do they mean?

Would they be universally understood?

(by all cultures)

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture

What do you see? Duck or rabbit?

Evidence for Gregory or Gibson?

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Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • Remember the question !!
  • Is the world OUT THERE to be seen? Bottom Up perception
  • (Gibson=nature)
  • Do we construct the world that we see? Top Down perception
  • (Gregory=nurture)
deregowski 1972 pictorial perception and culture23
Deregowski (1972)Pictorial perception and culture
  • As you view this is your brain testing a hypothesis?