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Danish Travel Account - Use of mirror statistics Selma Mulalic Danish Travel Account - Use of mirror statistics International trade in services Travel account: Main sources Asymmetries The treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries

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danish travel account use of mirror statistics2
Danish Travel Account - Use of mirror statistics
  • International trade in services
  • Travel account:
        • Main sources
        • Asymmetries
        • The treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries
international trade in services
International trade in services
  • Part of BOP Statistics
  • BOP Division in Statistics Denmark
  • Balance of Payments Manual
  • Manual on Statistics of international trade in services
main sources
Main sources
  • Survey on trade in services
  • Travel surveys
  • Other sources
survey on trade in services
Survey on trade in services
  • Settlements statistics terminated by end 2004
  • Survey on trade in services from July / third quarter 2004
sample based on settlements statistics
Sample – based on settlements statistics
  • Sample: App. 1.600 respondents (CVR-units)
  • One part found by using a cut-off method
  • After the cut-off sample was found – a stratified sample was drawn from the remaining part of the population

Totalsample

Population

Cut off sample

Stratified sample

travel account
Travel account

Travel covers primarily the goods and services acquired from an economy by travellers during visits of less than one year to that economy.

main sources9
Main sources
  • Survey of trade in services
  • Frontier surveys
  • Surveys at accommodation establishments
  • Household survey
asymmetries
Asymmetries

Asymmetry data / Mirror statistics

asymmetries11
Asymmetries
  • TG-Travel:

- Asymmetries on Travel

- Asymmetries on Night Stays

- Asymmetries on Number of Travellers

  • EU-25, USA, Japan
  • 3 years
asymmetries12
Asymmetries
  • Asymmetry data is supplemented by:

- Structure of the collection system

- Description of the surveys

- Main problems in the implementation

asymmetries13
Asymmetries
  • Important item on the agenda of each TG-Travel meeting
  • UK – Spain Travel asymmetry
  • Bilateral talks on bilateral asymmetry
asymmetries14
Asymmetries
  • Asymmetry data is a very useful information
  • Overview on global Intra – EU bilateral Travel asymmetries
  • Year to year development in bilateral asymmetries
asymmetries15
Asymmetries
  • Asymmetry data could be used for more practical purposes
  • Error detection
  • Confirm figures
  • In automatic balancing system
asymmetries17
Asymmetries

Asymmetries

Asymmetries

max 10%

= 0

slide18

Asymmetries

Asymmetries

Asymmetries

max 10%

= 0

min 25%

asymmetries19
Asymmetries
  • Asymmetry data can be viewed is an overall picture of other countries’ reports, and gives us an impression whether there is room (or need) for alterations
  • But it is almost impossible to use mirror statistics directly
asymmetries20
Asymmetries
  • Why ?

- Structure of the collection system

- Estimation methods

- Different approaches to the same issues

- High variance, measurement errors…

asymmetries21
Asymmetries
  • Why ?

- Structure of the collection system

- Estimation methods

- Different approaches to the same issues

- High variance, measurement errors…

asymmetries22
Asymmetries
  • Tour operators resident in third countries
  • Expenditure related to use of second homes abroad
  • Durable and valuable goods
  • Same-day travel
the treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries
The treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries
  • Two approaches:

1. Merchanting (net) approach

2. Invoice (gross) approach

the treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries24
The treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries

A

B

DK

120

100

the treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries25
The treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries
  • Merchanting (net) approach

Country A

A

B

DK

Country B

120

100

Country A

the treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries26
Invoice (gross) approachThe treatment of transactions involving tour operators resident in third countries

Country A

Country B

A

B

DK

Country DK

120

100

Country DK

goods and services
Goods and services

1. Merchanting

2. Durable and valuable goods (Travel)

3. Invoices which include both goods and services

4. Illegal activities

5. Customized software (Computer services)