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FINAL YEAR PROJECT FOR ENGINEERS

FINAL YEAR PROJECT FOR ENGINEERS

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FINAL YEAR PROJECT FOR ENGINEERS

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  1. FINAL YEAR PROJECTFOR ENGINEERS 3rd Seminar Lawrence Cleary

  2. Seminar 2 • Citing References • Punctuation • Spelling • Editing and Proofreading University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  3. Citing Sources Whether you quote, paraphrase, or summarize, if you wish to use somebody else’s words, ideas, method of organization, or graphic presentation of information, you must cite the source in your text and reference it at the end of your report. Not doing so constitutes plagiarism, which is an academic offence that carries penalties. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  4. Why Cite Sources • Doing so allows the reader to distinguish between the discoveries you have made through research and your own thoughts in response to those discoveries. • Your citation provides a link between the information that you have imparted in your text and the original source of that information. • Doing so enhances your credibility as a writer. • Citing sources and referencing them protects you from charges of plagiarism. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  5. Various Referencing Styles • Harvard Style • Modern Language Association (MLA) Style • Chicago / Turabian Style • American Psychological Association (APA) Style • Council of Biology Editors (CBE) Style University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  6. Harvard Style • Harvard referencing style is favored by UL and your department. • The Harvard referencing style is an author-date system. • Citations in your text are references to the author of the text from which you retrieved the information that you have presented in your writing and the year of that text’s publication. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  7. Harvard Style: A Problem • One thing that distinguishes Harvard Style referencing from other referencing systems is that it does not have a prescriptive approach to how it is punctuated. • The only rule is to include particular information and to be consistent in how you format your citations and references. • It is for this reason that the syntax and format used in Cite It Rightsupercedes all other sources. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  8. For Instance: • Criminal activities associated with tourism can bedivided into three main categories: those attributable to the tourists; those which illegally service demands generated by tourists and those which are directed against tourists (Light and Jones, 1999: 46). (Mary Immaculate College, Language Support Unit n.d.) • Criminal activities associated with tourism can be divided into three main categories: those attributable to the tourists; those which illegally service demands generated by tourists and those which are directed against tourists (Light and Jones 1999,p.46). University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  9. The Reference Page • Sources cited are listed alphabetically according to the last name of the author used in the citation. • The references are left-aligned. Neither the first line nor subsequent lines are indented. • There is a double space between references. • Example: Beardsworth, I. and Keil, T. (1997) Sociology on theMenu: an Invitation to theStudy of Food and Society, London: Routledge. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  10. Quotations • Quoted information is enclosed by double-inverted commas (“…”). • The text quoted is sacrosanct. • Do not change spelling (I.e. American to British) or punctuation. • Do not correct spelling and punctuation. • Sic enclosed in square brackets, [sic], is inserted into the quote, after the error, to indicate to the reader that the error was not yours. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  11. Quotations • The citation is part of the sentence in which you have included a quote, but it is not part of the quote: • In 1944, the Minister for Industry and Commerce stated that “the Great Southern Railway had saved £1.25 million in expenditure and brought a reduction in fares of between 10 and 12 per cent” (Barrett 1982, p. 3). (adapted from Mary Immaculate College, Learner Support Unit n.d.) University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  12. Abbreviations • Be sure to properly format abbreviations used in your citations and references. • et al. (Not et. al.—from the Latin, et aliae, “and others”) • ed. / eds. (editor, or edition / editors—not Ed., Edn., Ed’s) • p. / pp. (page / pages—not PP., pp or P.P., etc. • Abbreviated titles: The first reference to a text should be to its full title. This can be followed by its abbreviation in brackets. Thereafter, the abbreviated title can be used. • n.d. / n.p. (no date / no publication) University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  13. Punctuation • Good writers keep good resources at hand. • Both • The Elements of Style, by William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White, and… • Trevor Young’s Technical Writing A-Z: A Commonsense Guide to Engineering Reports and Theses …are in the library and in the bookshop. • Buy one, borrow one, beg one, steal one! University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  14. Rules of Punctuation From Technical Writing A-Z (2005): • Define the nature of a sentence (terminal punctuation), using a full stop, exclamation mark, question mark or ellipsis marks. • Show the relationship between ideas in a sentence, using a colon, dashes, brackets and/or commas. • Join two sentences, using a colon, semicolon or comma. • List items within a sentence, using a colon, semicolon or comma. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  15. Rules of Punctuation From Technical Writing A-Z (2005) con’t: • Show a possessive relationship by using an appostrophe. • Quote something by using inverted commas (quotation marks). • Clarify word usage by using a hyphen or inverted commas. • Indicate a range or link words by using a dash or slash. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  16. End of Sentence Punctuation • End of sentence punctuation: • Full stops indicate the end of a declarative statement. • Exclamation marks indicate the end of an emphatic or imperative statement. • A question mark indicates the end of an interrogative statement. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  17. End of Sentence Punctuation • An ellipses (…) indicates that either the speaker’s idea is trailing off, or else (more common in scholarly work) that a long, well-known list continues as the reader would expect it to. • Example: “It was convenient to use the radio communication alphabet names: alpha, bravo, charlie…” (Young 2005, p. 153). University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  18. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • To introduce an explanation or elaboration, use a colon (:). • To introduce an explanation or illustration that runs up to the end of the sentence, use a dash or a colon. • Distinguish between an en dash (-) and an em dash (—). • Either are okay to use, but be consistent. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  19. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • To mark a parenthetical insertion, use brackets (parenthesis), dashes, or a pair of commas on each side of the inserted word, phase or clause. • To insert non-restrictive, or non-defining, information, enclose the word, phrase or clause within commas: • The woman, who is waving, is my mother. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  20. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • Subsidiary or introductory information is set off with a comma: • After the concert, we all met at the pub. • However, when this same information trails the main idea, no comma is necessary. • We all met at the pub after the concert. • No comma is necessary when this same information trails the main idea. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  21. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • Use a colon to join two sentences where the second explains, elaborates or contradicts the first (Young 2005, p. 157). • Use a semi-colon to join two main ideas that are closely linked: • My older brother is a solicitor; my younger brother is a different kind of thief. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  22. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • A semicolon follows a main idea when it is linked to another main idea by an adverb. • The dog barked half the night; as a result, I barely slept a wink. • A comma usually follows the adverb (as it introduces the second main idea). University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  23. Punctuation to show the relationship between ideas in a sentence • A comma follows a main idea when it is linked to another idea of equal value by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, for, nor, while, yet, so—while?): • ‘The passengers disembarked, but the pilot stayed onboard and contacted the ground crew’ (Young 2005, p. 158). University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  24. Lists in a Sentence • Use a colon to introduce a list: • “The operation requires four people: a cook, two waiters and a manager” (Young 2005, p. 159). • Use a comma to separate items in a list: • “The salad had cheese, croutons, and sunflower seeds” (Young 2005, p.159). • Use a comma to separate adjectives: • It was a clear, bright, blue, sunny day. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  25. Lists in a Sentence • To separate list items that contain a comma, use a semicolon: • “The lesson included cooking the steak, eggs and chips; adding salt, pepper and sauce; tasting the food; and removing, washing and drying the plates” (Young 2005, p. 160). • To separate “etc.” from list items, no punctuation is needed: • “The restaurant stocked only New World wines (from Australia, California, Chile, South Africa etc.), but the selection was excellent” (Young 2005, p. 160). University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  26. To Indicate Possession • To indicate a possessive noun, use an apostrophe: • …the Earth’s atmosphere… • …China’s growing economy… • …women’s repression in Angola… • To indicate a possessive pronoun: • …her inability to speak… • …our expectations of ourselves… • It’s your life. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  27. Quotations • Quotes are enclosed by double-inverted commas: • An ellipsis indicates that something was left out of the quote: • Square brackets indicate an insertion into the quote. • To indicate a quote or emphasised word within a quote, use single inverted commas. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  28. Clarifying Word Usage • Use a hyphen when compounding words to form an adjective: • …overly-optimistic calculations… • Do the same when joining prefixes to proper names or when joining suffixes to numerals or symbols: • …anti-Bush… • …an I-shaped cross section… • …a ten-fold increase… (Young 2005, p. 164) University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  29. Clarifying Word Usage • Use inverted commas to indicate that a word or phrase is specialised jargon: • “The computer technician ‘daisy-chained’ the drives” (Young 2005, p. 164). • “A ‘fudge factor’ of 1.2 was used as a multiplier to account for the increased component size” (Young 2005, p. 164). • “Correlative conjunctions” work only in pairs. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  30. To Indicate a Link or Range • Use an endash to indicate a range of numbers or specify a time period: • pp. 180-89 • 2005-06 • Use the same punctuation to link two places or people: • Edinburgh-Inverness railway (Young 2005, p. 165) • To link two associated terms, use an endash or a slash: • Volume-volume ratio • Volume/volume ratio (Young 2005, p. 165) University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  31. Spelling • Before using the spell-check feature on Microsoft Word, set the language. • Set your “Options”. • Run the “Spelling and Grammar…” check. • Do not change the spelling of proper nouns. • Spell non-English words precisely as they would be spelled in their native context. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  32. Confusables • N.B. Spell check does not catch the correctly spelled misuse of a word. • Check confusables. Use the “Find” feature to make corrections. • accept / except • advice / advise • affect / effect • cite / sight / site • form / from University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  33. Confusables • its / it’s • quiet / quite / quit • straight / strait, straits • systematic / systemic • that / which • their / there / they’re • to / too • weather / whether • who’s / whose University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  34. Proofreading Strategies • Proofread systematically. Check one thing at a time. • Proof a hard copy, rather than doing it on screen. • Ask a friend, relative, or someone else with no knowledge of your field to read your draft. • Read it aloud or listen to it being read aloud. • Use the “Find” feature to check repeated and cross-referenced information. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  35. Proofreading Strategies • Make checklist. • Make a global check. • Work your way down to localized problems. • Include: • A check of figures: • Are they sequentially numbered? • Do they all have the same captions (font, style, size)? • Have they been appropriately referenced? University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  36. Proofreading Strategies • Check • tables for the same issues. • references. • Check that citations are listed in the reference page. • Check that the citations and references are arranged and formatted as in Cite It Right. • headings. • Check for consistency. • Check that a heading is not isolated at the bottom of a page. If it is, move it up to the top of the next page. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  37. Proofreading Strategies • Check abbreviated terms. • Check that they accompany the full, unabbreviated term the first time that they are used. • Check numerical values. • “—ensure that an appropriate number of significant figures have been used and that the units have not been omitted” (Young 2005, p. 151). • Check Table of Contents. • Check that all headings correspond to the pages listed in the table of contents. • Do the same for figures and tables. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  38. Proofreading Strategies • Do a final check for spelling errors, stylistic inconsistencies, referencing and numbering. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  39. FYP Drop-in Sessions • Drop-in help is provided by Aisling Ross and Holly Powell in the Regional Writing Centre, C1-065, Main Bldg., every Wednesday from 2-6pm • PURPOSE • One-on-one help in all areas of report writing • Available to those who register (by attending a seminar) • TIME & VENUE (subject to confirmation) • Aisling Ross is available on Wednesdays from 4-6pm • Holly Powell is available on Wednesdays from 2-4pm • Geraldine Exton is available on Tuesdays from 10-12pm University of Limerick FYP for Engineers

  40. References University of Limerick Library (2007)Guide to Harvard Referencing Style, Cite it Right, University of Limerick’s referencing series, 2nd ed., Limerick: Glucksman Library, University of Limerick. Mary Immaculate College, Learner Support Unit (2008) The Harvard Referencing System [online] available: http://www.mic.ul.ie/lsu/referencing.html [accessed 14 March 2006]. Strunk, W. and White, E.B. (1972) The Elements of Style, 2nd ed., New York: Macmillan. Young, T.M. (2005) Technical Writing A-Z: A Commonsense Guide to Engineering Reports and Theses, British English Edition, New York: ASME. University of Limerick FYP for Engineers