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Animation & Multimedia By John Sullivan Spring 2002 Video Text Graphics Sound Communicating Electronically Multimedia Communications Taught by the CIS, Art, & Communications Departments Intro to Communication Theory Two-Dimension Design Microcomputer Applications or Computer Literacy

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Animation & Multimedia

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animation multimedia

Animation & Multimedia

By John Sullivan

Spring 2002





Communicating Electronically

multimedia communications taught by the cis art communications departments
Multimedia CommunicationsTaught by the CIS, Art, & Communications Departments

Intro to Communication Theory

Two-Dimension Design

Microcomputer Applications or Computer Literacy

Microcomputer Hardware & Software

Multimedia Production I & II

Computer Graphics I & II

Video Production I

Internet Navigation


Designing the New Media

Web Page Development

Presentation Skills for Business & the Professions


Computer Animation, Video Production II, Still & Digital Photography

what is animation
What is Animation?

50 years ago Walt Disney created animated objects such as Mickey Mouse.

Today the process used to create animated objects has had to change.

In fact, it continues to change.


The word “animation” is a form of “animate,” which means to bring to life.

Thus when a multimedia developer wants to bring an image to life, animation is used.

For example, a spinning globe is it better to film the motion on video, or is animation a better solution.

the power of motion
The Power of Motion

Visual effects such as wipes, fades, zooms, and dissolves are available in most authoring packages.

But animation is more than wipes, fades, zooms, and dissolves.

Until Quick Time and AVI motion video became more common place animations were the primary source of dynamic action in multimedia.



adds visual impact to your multimedia projects and Web pages

Many multimedia applications provide animation tools,


You just have to look at it & enjoy it!

Especially if your “flying’”


First you should understand the principles of how the eye interprets the changes is sees as motion.

principles of animation
Principles of Animation

Animation is possible because of a a biological phenomenon known as persistence of vision


The psychological phenomenon called phi .

An object seen by the human eye remains chemically mapped on the eye’s retina for a brief time after viewing.

Combined with the human mind’s need to conceptually complete a perceived action.

This makes it possible for a series of images that are changed very slightly and very rapidly, one after the other, seem like continuous motion .


Animation adds visual impact. Persistence of vision allows a series of separate images to blend together into a visual illusion of movement.


Kinematics is the study of the movement and motion of structures that have joints, such as a walking man.

Software: Fractal Design’s Poser

animation and frame rates
Animation and Frame Rates

TV video builds 30 entire frames or pictures every second.

Movies are shot at a shutter rate of 24 frames per second, but using projections tricks the flicker is increased to 48.

On some projectors each frame is shown 3 times before the next frame, for a total of 72 flickers per second which helps eliminate the flicker effect.

Cel Animation – plays at 24 frames per second.

animation techniques
Animation Techniques

Computers have taken a great deal of handwork out of the animation and rendering process.

And commercial films such as Jurassic Park, Beauty and the Beast, Toy Story, and Shrek have utilized the power of the computers.

2 d animation
2-D Animation

Two types:

Cel animation

Path animation

cel animation
Cel Animation

Made famous by Disney

24 frames per second therefore a minute may require as many as 1,440 separate frames.

Cel animation: is based on changes that occur from one frame to the next.

Cel stands for celluloid which is a clear sheet with images drawn on them.

The celluloid images are place on a background that is usually stationary.

The background remain fixed as the images changes.

path animation
Path Animation

Moves an object along a predetermined path on the screen

The path can be a straight line or have a number of curves.

Starts with keyframes (the first and last frame of an action).

The series of frames in between the keyframes are drawn in a process called tweening.

Tweening requires calculating the number of frames between keyframes and the path the action takes, and then actually takes, and then sketches a series of progressively different outlines.

PowerPoint by Chris Tirpak

computer animation
Computer Animation

Typically employees the same logic and procedural concepts as cel animation

You can usually set your own frame rate

At 15 frames a second the animation may appear jerky and slow

2-D animation can be an acceptable alternative to the expense of creating video

418 Kilobytes

5 fps

3 d animation bryce
3-D Animation - Bryce

3-D Animation involves three steps: modeling, animation, and rendering

Modeling – the process of creating objects and scenes

Animation – the process of defining the object’s motion

Rendering – the final step in creating 3-D animation.

Morphing is the process of blending two images into a series of images

Warping allows you to distort a single image

Virtual reality (VR) creates an environment that surrounds the user so that they become part of the experience.

animation file formats
Animation File Formats

SoftwareFile Format

Director .dir & .dcr

Animator Pro .fli

Studio Max .max

SuperCard and Director .pics

Windows Audio Video Interleaved .avi

Macintosh .qt & .mov

Motion Video .mpeg

CompuServe .gif

Flash .swf

Shockwave .dcr

multimedia student work
Multimedia Student Work
  • Beatles by Andrew Kear
    • Using Director and Poser
    • Multimedia II
  • Animator by Richard Gaines
    • Using Director
    • Multimedia II
  • What is the Matrix by Ahmed Adnan Tarig
    • Using Director and Flash
    • Multimedia I
  • Hungry – NYU Multimedia Lab

Shuman, James (2001), Multimedia Concepts, Course Technology, Boston, Mass.

Vaugh, Tay (2001), Multimedia Making It Work, McGraw-Hill, New York,

Tannenbaum, Robert, S. (1998), Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia, New York, Computer Science Press

Esposito, Lisa, (2001), Project 1, Multimedia I, RVCC

Kear, Andrew, (2001), Beatles, RVCC

Gaines, Richard, (2001), Animator, RVCC

Hungry – NYU Multimedia Lab, SIGGRAPGH 1998, Electronic art and animation catalog

Gooley, Lisa, (2001), Project 1, Multimedia I, RVCC

Font – Andy

Music – (2001) Linkin Park, The End

the end

The End

John Sullivan


Where one image transforms into another

Software: Avid’s Elastic Reality, Black Belt’s WinImages, Gryphon Software’s Morph, Human Software’s Squizz, MorphWizard, Unlead’s MorhStudio


Can illustrate a process or movement

  • Can provide humor
  • Can help make a point
  • Gets attention