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Clinical Psychology. Concepts. Different approaches have different ideas about what causes psychological disorders to develop Most psychological disorders are caused by multiple factors. Bio-psycho-social model. Concepts.

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Clinical Psychology

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  • Different approaches have different ideas about what causes psychological disorders to develop
  • Most psychological disorders are caused by multiple factors.
    • Bio-psycho-social model
  • Treatment is shaped by one’s understanding of the causes of the problem
    • Eclectic approaches combine ideas from the different approaches/schools within psychology
the field of clinical psychology
The Field of Clinical Psychology
  • Research
    • causes of psychological disorders
    • effective treatment approaches
  • Application of theories/research findings to help clients
  • It can be difficult sometimes to draw the line between “abnormal” & “normal” behavior.
    • Useful criteria:
      • Atypical
      • Maladaptive
      • Disturbing
      • Unjustifiable
    • Are depressed, angry, anxious feelings always bad?
  • Psychological disorders are real problems that affect real people.
  • Research into the causes & treatment of psychological disorders is critically important.
  • Process of making a diagnosis is difficult
  • Stigma of mental illness creates a great deal of difficulty in our society in terms of people getting the help they need
stigma labeling
Stigma & Labeling
  • Rosenhan study 1973
  • Purpose of diagnostic labels
diagnostic statistical manual iv
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual—IV
  • Concensus among professionals—psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers, etc.
  • Used in obtaining insurance coverage, treatment, research
diagnostic statistical manual of mental disorders 4 th edition
Schizophrenia & other related psychotic disorders

Mood disorders

Anxiety disorders

Substance Abuse Disorders

Personality Disorders

Adjustment Disorders

Somatoform disorders

Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders

Sleep Disorders

Eating Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—4th edition
symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized thinking
    • Delusions
    • Incoherent Speech—flight of ideas, “word salad”
  • Disturbed Perceptions
    • Hallucinations
  • Inappropriate Emotions & Actions
    • Disturbed Affect
    • Flat Affect
factors that may contribute to development of schizophrenia
Factors that may contribute to development of Schizophrenia
  • Dopamine overactivity
  • Underactivity in frontal lobes
  • Enlarged ventricles
  • Underdeveloped thalamus
  • Possible Prenatal viral infection
  • Genetics
  • Stress
  • Expressed Emotion
treatment of schizophrenia
Treatment of Schizophrenia
  • Psychotropic drugs
    • Most success with treating hallucinations & delusions
    • Recently, some drugs that also can help other symptoms as well
  • Community Support Programs —helping with housing, employment, etc.
  • Family Support — education about the disorder, attempt to reduce expressed emotion
major depression symptoms
  • Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day
  • Diminished interest or pleasure
  • Weight or appetite loss/gain
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Fatigue or Loss of Energy
  • Feelings of Worthlessness
  • Concentration problems
  • Suicidal thoughts or thoughts of death
depression also occurs in
Depression also occurs in…
  • Dysthymia: milder, but longer lasting (at least 2 years in adults)
  • Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (less than 6 months)
major depression
  • Relatively common—10% of men & 20% of women
  • Rate of depression increasing with each new generation
  • Course: for some, naturally remits, most lasts less than 3 months (even without professional help). For others, without treatment, recurrence becomes more frequent & more severe
bipolar disorder
  • Alternating patterns of depression & mania
symptoms of mania
Symptoms of mania
  • Abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood
  • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity
  • Decreased need for sleep
  • More talkative than usual
  • Flight of ideas or racing thoughts
  • Psychomotor agitation
  • Distractability
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Delusions
causes of mood disorder
Causes of Mood Disorder
  • Bio-psycho-social model
    • Genetics & Neurotransmitter levels
    • Negative thinking
    • Low levels of social support
  • Difference in gender ratio in major depression
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia
  • Phobias
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
anxiety disorders20
Anxiety Disorders
  • Panic Disorder
    • Panic attacks: brief, sudden, recurrent episodes of intense & uncontrollable anxiety
    • Sometimes (but not always) co-occurs with Agoraphobia—avoiding situations in which panic attack might occur
    • One cause may be over attentiveness to physical symptoms
    • Recommended treatment: cognitive behavioral--focuses on helping the person to better understand the symptoms & interpret them in less anxiety-provoking ways
anxiety disorders21
Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder—
    • Obsessions
    • Compulsions
  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
    • Response to traumatic situation
    • Flooding
    • Numbing
    • Autonomic hyperarousal
anxiety disorders22
Anxiety Disorders
  • Phobic Disorders—phobia=persistent, irrational, disruptive fear of specific object, activity or situation.
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder—general, constant & high level of anxiety about multiple areas in one’s life.