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Clinical Psychology

Clinical Psychology

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Clinical Psychology

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  1. Clinical Psychology

  2. Concepts • Different approaches have different ideas about what causes psychological disorders to develop • Most psychological disorders are caused by multiple factors. • Bio-psycho-social model

  3. Concepts • Treatment is shaped by one’s understanding of the causes of the problem • Eclectic approaches combine ideas from the different approaches/schools within psychology

  4. The Field of Clinical Psychology • Research • causes of psychological disorders • effective treatment approaches • Application of theories/research findings to help clients

  5. Concepts • It can be difficult sometimes to draw the line between “abnormal” & “normal” behavior. • Useful criteria: • Atypical • Maladaptive • Disturbing • Unjustifiable • Are depressed, angry, anxious feelings always bad?

  6. Concepts • Psychological disorders are real problems that affect real people. • Research into the causes & treatment of psychological disorders is critically important. • Process of making a diagnosis is difficult • Stigma of mental illness creates a great deal of difficulty in our society in terms of people getting the help they need

  7. Stigma & Labeling • Rosenhan study 1973 • Purpose of diagnostic labels

  8. Diagnostic & Statistical Manual—IV • Concensus among professionals—psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric social workers, etc. • Used in obtaining insurance coverage, treatment, research

  9. Schizophrenia & other related psychotic disorders Mood disorders Anxiety disorders Substance Abuse Disorders Personality Disorders Adjustment Disorders Somatoform disorders Sexual & Gender Identity Disorders Sleep Disorders Eating Disorders Dissociative Disorders Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders—4th edition

  10. Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Disorganized thinking • Delusions • Incoherent Speech—flight of ideas, “word salad” • Disturbed Perceptions • Hallucinations • Inappropriate Emotions & Actions • Disturbed Affect • Flat Affect

  11. Factors that may contribute to development of Schizophrenia • Dopamine overactivity • Underactivity in frontal lobes • Enlarged ventricles • Underdeveloped thalamus • Possible Prenatal viral infection • Genetics • Stress • Expressed Emotion

  12. Treatment of Schizophrenia • Psychotropic drugs • Most success with treating hallucinations & delusions • Recently, some drugs that also can help other symptoms as well • Community Support Programs —helping with housing, employment, etc. • Family Support — education about the disorder, attempt to reduce expressed emotion

  13. MAJOR DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS • Depressed mood most of the day nearly every day • Diminished interest or pleasure • Weight or appetite loss/gain • Sleep disturbances • Psychomotor agitation or retardation • Fatigue or Loss of Energy • Feelings of Worthlessness • Concentration problems • Suicidal thoughts or thoughts of death

  14. Depression also occurs in… • Dysthymia: milder, but longer lasting (at least 2 years in adults) • Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood (less than 6 months)

  15. MAJOR DEPRESSION • Relatively common—10% of men & 20% of women • Rate of depression increasing with each new generation • Course: for some, naturally remits, most lasts less than 3 months (even without professional help). For others, without treatment, recurrence becomes more frequent & more severe

  16. BIPOLAR DISORDER • Alternating patterns of depression & mania

  17. Symptoms of mania • Abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood • Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity • Decreased need for sleep • More talkative than usual • Flight of ideas or racing thoughts • Psychomotor agitation • Distractability • Impulsive behavior • Delusions

  18. Causes of Mood Disorder • Bio-psycho-social model • Genetics & Neurotransmitter levels • Negative thinking • Low levels of social support • Difference in gender ratio in major depression

  19. Anxiety Disorders • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder • Panic Disorder with or without Agoraphobia • Phobias • Generalized Anxiety Disorder • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  20. Anxiety Disorders • Panic Disorder • Panic attacks: brief, sudden, recurrent episodes of intense & uncontrollable anxiety • Sometimes (but not always) co-occurs with Agoraphobia—avoiding situations in which panic attack might occur • One cause may be over attentiveness to physical symptoms • Recommended treatment: cognitive behavioral--focuses on helping the person to better understand the symptoms & interpret them in less anxiety-provoking ways

  21. Anxiety Disorders • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder— • Obsessions • Compulsions • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder • Response to traumatic situation • Flooding • Numbing • Autonomic hyperarousal

  22. Anxiety Disorders • Phobic Disorders—phobia=persistent, irrational, disruptive fear of specific object, activity or situation. • Generalized Anxiety Disorder—general, constant & high level of anxiety about multiple areas in one’s life.