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Chinese Praxis. The Political Thought of Mao Zedong. Chinese Marxism. Strangeness of socialism with Chinese Characteristics Consistent with Marxism-Leninism Mao Zedong thought spurred hope of communists despairing of Western complacency and worried those in the West hoping for peace.

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chinese praxis

Chinese Praxis

The Political Thought of Mao Zedong

chinese marxism
Chinese Marxism
  • Strangeness of socialism with Chinese Characteristics
  • Consistent with Marxism-Leninism
  • Mao Zedong thought spurred hope of communists despairing of Western complacency and worried those in the West hoping for peace
the life of mao zedong
The Life of Mao Zedong
  • Born December 26, 1893 – Eldest Child in a peasant family
  • Participated in Chinese revolution overthrowing the Manchus 1911
  • May 4th Movement protesting transfer of German held Chinese territory to Japanese 1919
  • Joined Communist party 1921
  • Report on the Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan 1927
  • Long March 1934-35 – Epic Journey traveling 6000 miles to establish new communist base in Yanan. Of 100,000 participants only 20,000 survived
  • War with Japan 1937-1945 – United Front established with Kuomintang to defeat Japanese
  • The People’s Republic of China proclaimed 1949
imperialism and mao s rural strategy
Imperialism and Mao’s Rural Strategy
  • From urban proletariat emphasis to peasant emphasis inspired by Kuomintang purges of the urban base party
  • The party should lead the peasants
  • Poor peasants play leadership role in the revolution
  • Base should be placed in inaccessible countryside
  • Guerilla warfare as means of waging war
china s path to socialism
China’s Path to Socialism
  • Time needed to move toward socialism
  • Any group is it thinks correctly can belong to the people – proletariat, peasantry, petite bourgeoisie, and national bourgeoisie – People’s democratic Dictatorship
  • Developing heavy industry and developing class consciousness with emphasis on the red side of red/expert problem – criticized Soviet Union for losing the emphasis on ideology in favor of industrialization
mao on contradiction
Mao on Contradiction
  • Breakthroughs in the theory of dialectical materialism – everything contains contradictions
  • Antagonistic contradictions – Class struggle only can be resolved through victory
  • Nonantagonistic contradictions – peaceful methods of criticism preferable for resolving conflict
  • Relationships vary according to historical circumstance and may require violence to resolve antagonistic contradictions
  • Marxism will pass away and something higher will come to replace it
the prc and the ussr
The PRC and the USSR
  • Soviet and PRC split and ideological conflict
  • De-Stalinization – Mao affirmed Stalin’s value though acknowledging some of his errors such as the cult of the hero
  • China needed to use heavy handed methods associated with Stalin to bring order – Mao embraced cult of the hero for this purpose
revisionists and paper tigers
Revisionists and “Paper Tigers”
  • Chinese refused to accept peaceful coexistence with capitalism
  • Militancy more words than practice – potentially useful as a means of uniting Chinese people
  • Chinese accused Soviet leadership of becoming an elite divorced from their own people – Soviet State was counter-revolutionary and prevented the Chinese people from realizing their revolutionary destiny
mao zedong as symbol
Mao Zedong as Symbol
  • Mao as teacher
  • Dislike of formal education
  • Wisdom of the uneducated masses
  • Cultural Revolution 1966-1969 instituted to breakdown growing class stratification
  • Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong – presents an argument for perpetual struggle
china after mao
China after Mao
  • Death of Mao 1976
  • Trial of the Gang of Four
  • The rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping and the emphasizing of the expert part of the red/expert problem
  • De-Maoification or de-sacralization – Yanan heritage
  • Pragmatic Mao used as stamp of approval on reform movement in China
the rise of deng xiaoping
The Rise of Deng Xiaoping
  • Veteran of the Long March
  • Sympathetic to expert/bureaucratic side of expert/red spectrum
  • Opposed “whatever faction”
  • Deng used Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong thought to advance his reform ideas
  • Four modernizations and new open door policy – Market socialism
  • Adherence to four cardinal principles – keeping to the socialist road, upholding the people’s democratic dictatorship, following the leadership of the communist party, and applying Marxism-Leninism Mao Zedong thought as defining and limiting factor for reforms – NEP programs utilizing incentives and decentralization to achieve economic goals
the rise of deng xiaoping continued
The Rise of Deng Xiaoping - Continued
  • Tremendous economic growth
  • Inflation
  • Corruption
  • Rising expectations
  • Opposed political liberalization – Tiananmen Square 1989
the fall of deng xiaoping
The Fall of Deng Xiaoping
  • The Hundred Flower Campaign, the Great Leap Forward (1957-1958), the Cultural Revolution (1966-1969), Democracy Wall Campaign (1979-1980), and the pro-democracy movement 1989
  • Deng’s appointed successors are removed from power but Deng played role in appointing Jiang Zemin, a supporter of the Tiananmen crackdown
concluding thoughts
Concluding Thoughts
  • Balancing authoritarian politics and market liberalization
  • Controlling corruption
  • Relations with the West
  • Mao Zedong Thought
  • Deng Xiaoping Thought
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