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Chinese Language - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chinese Language Index Why Chinese need Romanization Chinese Romanization Standards Extensions for other languages Why Chinese need Romanization Romanization is fit for Chinese Chinese Romanization is specially designed only for Chinese instead of all languages.

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  • Why Chinese need Romanization
  • Chinese Romanization Standards
  • Extensions for other languages
romanization is fit for chinese
Romanization is fit for Chinese
  • Chinese Romanization is specially designed only for Chinese instead of all languages.
    • Adding ‘r’ in the end to describe a “retroflex” syllable.
    • Adding ‘tone’ attribute to describe the tone.
  • Chinese Romanization is widely used and learnt.
    • Chinese people learn Chinese Romanization in primary school.
    • Many foreigners begin to learn Chinese by Chinese Romanization.
    • Chinese Romanization is widely used to input Chinese Characters on computer.
  • Chinese government has brought into effect a standard for Chinese Romanization.
    • It is in effect for education, publishing, information processing and other related industries in China.
chinese romanization standard
Chinese Romanization Standard
  • The writing rules of Chinese Romanization conform to P.R.C state standard “Basic rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography” [1] published by (CSBQTS) in 1996.
  • This Orthography is based on “Hanyu Pinyin Schema” published in 1958.
  • According to the naming method of alphabet, we propose to use “x-CSBQTS-96” to represent Chinese Romanization alphabet. However, we also propose to use “x-Pinyin-96”, which is easier to remember.
  • It is based on Bopomofo from R.O.C
  • ㄅㄆㄇㄈㄉㄊㄋㄌ
  • ㄍㄎㄏㄐㄑㄒㄓㄔㄕㄖ
  • ㄗㄘㄙㄚㄛㄜㄝ
  • ㄞㄟㄠㄡㄢㄣㄤㄥ
  • ㄦ一ㄨㄩ
hanyu pinyin schema published in 1958
Hanyu Pinyin Schema (published in 1958)
  • Character Set.
    • 25 characters, all from ‘a’ to ‘z’ except ‘ü’.
    • (For easy to input on computer: ü is replaced by v.)
  • Initial Set:
    • b, p m, f, d, t, n, l, g, k, h, j, q, x, zh, ch, sh, r, z, c, s
  • Final Set:
    • i, u, ü, a , ia, ua, o, uo, e, ie, eü, ai, uai, ei, uei,
    • ao, iao, ou, iou, an, ian, uan, üan, en, in, uen, ün
    • ang, iang, uang, eng, ing, ueng, ong, iong,
  • Tone Annotation:
    • mā , má, mǎ, mà, ma
  • Separator: '
    • pi’ao
basic rules for hanyu pinyin orthography summary published in 1996
Basic rules forHanyu Pinyin Orthography (Summarypublished in 1996)

1. Words are the basic units for spelling the Chinese Common Language. (Space is used to separate Word)

  • rén (person/people), péngyou (friend[s]), túshūguǎn (library/libraries)
  • wǒrén hé nóngmín (Workers and Farmers)

2. Structures of two or three syllables that indicate a complete concept are linked:

  • quánguó (the whole nation), duìbuqǐ (sorry),

3. Separate terms with more than 4 syllables if they can be separated into words, otherwise link all the syllables:

  • wúfèng gāngbǐ (seamless pen), Hóngshízìhuì (Red Cross)
basic rules for hanyu pinyin summary published in 1996
Basic rules forHanyu Pinyin Summary(published in 1996)

4. Reduplicated monosyllabic words are linked, but reduplicated disyllabic words are separated:

    • rénrén (everybody), chángshi chángshi (give it a try)

5. In certain situations, for the purpose of making it convenient to read and understand the words, a hyphen can be added:

    • huán-bǎo (environmental protection), shíqī-bā suì (17 or 18 years old)
  • See above link for basic rule
pinyin practice
Pinyin Practice
  • Initial Activities
  • Choose the initial
  • Enter the initial
  • Directions Listen to the sounds by clicking on the Pinyin or the speaker symbol (visible when "show pinyin" is not selected). Choose the button of the initial you hear.
extension for cantonese
Extension for Cantonese
  • The Linguistic society of Hong Kong has published a simple, easy-to-learn and easy-to-use “LSHK Cantonese Romanization Scheme” in 1993.
  • This scheme is widely adopted in various areas: education, Cantonese information process and computer input method, etc.
  • So we also propose to use “The LSHK Cantonese Romanization Scheme” to annotate Cantonese pronunciation.
extension for more languages
Extension for more languages
  • Though it is possible to form up a general standard to annotate all languages’ pronunciation, such a standard may become very complex to use.
  • Another way is to use the predefined and widely accepted pronunciation annotation standards for different language.
  • At least, these diverse standards should be an important complement to the general standard.
korea romanization
Korea Romanization

It is used in our Korea Speech Synthesis System.

japanese romanization
Japanese Romanization
  • Japanese:
    • まだ覚えているでしょう 波音に包まれて
  • Japanese Romanization:
    • mada oboeteiru deshou nami oto ni tsutsumarete
  • English meaning:
    • Do you remember being surrounded by the sound of tide?
discussion of word
Discussion of “Word”
  • What is the definition of “Word” in Chinese?
    • Prosodic Word or Grammar Word
      • 你来还是不来?nǐ lái háishi bù lái?
      • Is “不来”a word?
  • What is the difference between ‘Word’ & ‘break’?
    • The misunderstanding problem can be solved by adding ‘break’.
  • Can Word information be handled by ‘Hanyu Pinyin Orthography’?
    • In ‘Hanyu Pinyin Orthography’, space is used to separate words.