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Chapter 7 Quality Management OBJECTIVES Total Quality Management Defined Quality Specifications and Costs Six Sigma Quality and Tools External Benchmarking ISO 9000 Service Quality Measurement Definitions of Quality

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slide2

OBJECTIVES

  • Total Quality Management Defined
  • Quality Specifications and Costs
  • Six Sigma Quality and Tools
  • External Benchmarking
  • ISO 9000
  • Service Quality Measurement
definitions of quality
Definitions of Quality
  • ASC: Product characteristics & features that affect customer satisfaction
  • User-Based: What consumer says it is
  • Manufacturing-Based: Degree to which a product conforms to design specification
  • Product-Based: Level of measurable product characteristic
importance of quality

Market Gains

Reputation

Volume

Price

Improved

Increased

Quality

Profits

Lower Costs

Productivity

Rework/Scrap

Warranty

Importance of Quality
  • Costs & market share
  • Company’s reputation
  • Product liability
  • International implications
ways in which quality can improve productivity
Ways in Which Quality Can Improve Productivity

Sales Gains

  • Improved response
  • Higher Prices
  • Improved reputation

Improved Quality

Increased Profits

Reduced Costs

  • Increased productivity
  • Lower rework and scrap costs
  • Lower warranty costs
quality principles
Quality Principles
  • Customer focus
  • Continuous improvement
  • Employee empowerment
  • Benchmarking
  • Just-in-time
  • Tools of TQM

Yields: How to do what is important and to be accomplished

malcom baldrige national quality award
Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award
  • Established in 1988 by the U.S. government
  • Designed to promote TQM practices
  • Some criteria
    • Senior executive leadership; strategic planning; management. of process quality
    • Quality results; customer satisfaction
  • Recent winners
    • Corning Inc.; GTE; AT&T; Eastman Chemical.
quality specifications
Quality Specifications
  • Design quality: Inherent value of the product in the marketplace
    • Dimensions include: Performance, Features, Reliability, Durability, Serviceability, Response, Aesthetics, and Reputation.
  • Conformance quality: Degree to which the product or service design specifications are met
target specification example
Target Specification Example
  • A study found U.S. consumers preferred Sony TV’s made in Japan to those made in the U.S. Both factories used the same designs & specifications. The difference in quality goals made the difference in consumer preferences.

Japanese factory (Target-oriented)

U.S. factory (Conformance-oriented)

costs of quality
Costs of Quality
  • Prevention costs - reducing the potential for defects
  • Appraisal costs - evaluating products
  • Internal failure - of producing defective parts or service
  • External costs - occur after delivery
costs of quality12

Appraisal Costs

External Failure

Costs

Prevention Costs

Internal FailureCosts

Costs of Quality

Costs of

Quality

total quality management tqm defined
Total Quality Management (TQM)Defined
  • Total quality management is defined as managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer
slide14
TQM

Encompasses entire organization, from supplier to customer

Stresses a commitment by management to have a continuing company-wide drive toward excellence in all aspects of products and services that are important to the customer.

achieving total quality management
Achieving Total Quality Management

CustomerSatisfaction

EffectiveBusiness

Attitudes (e.g., Commitment)

Employee Fulfillment

How to Do

Quality Principles

What to Do

Organizational Practices

deming s fourteen points
Deming’s Fourteen Points
  • Create consistency of purpose
  • Lead to promote change
  • Build quality into the products
  • Build long term relationships
  • Continuously improve product, quality, and service
  • Start training
  • Emphasize leadership
deming s points continued
Deming’s Points - continued
  • Drive out fear
  • Break down barriers between departments
  • Stop haranguing workers
  • Support, help, improve
  • Remove barriers to pride in work
  • Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement
  • Put everybody in the company to work on the transformation
concepts of tqm
Concepts of TQM
  • Continuous improvement
  • Employee empowerment
  • Benchmarking
  • Just-in-time (JIT)
  • Taguchi concepts
  • Knowledge of tools
continuous improvement
Continuous Improvement
  • Represents continual improvement of process & customer satisfaction
  • Involves all operations & work units
  • Other names
    • Kaizen (Japanese)
    • Zero-defects
    • Six sigma

© 1984-1994 T/Maker Co.

shewhart s pdca model
Shewhart’s PDCA Model

4.Act

1.Plan

Identify the improvement and make a plan

Implement the plan

2.Do

3.Check

Is the plan working

Test the plan

employee empowerment
Employee Empowerment
  • Getting employees involved in product & process improvements
    • 85% of quality problems are due to process & material
  • Techniques
    • Support workers
    • Let workers make decisions
    • Build teams & quality circles

© 1995 Corel Corp.

quality circles
Quality Circles
  • Group of 6-12 employees from same work area
  • Meet regularly to solve work-related problems
    • 4 hours/month
  • Facilitator trains & helps with meetings

© 1995 Corel Corp.

benchmarking
Benchmarking

Selecting best practices to use as a standard for performance

  • Determine what to benchmark
  • Form a benchmark team
  • Identify benchmarking partners
  • Collect and analyze benchmarking information
  • Take action to match or exceed the benchmark
resolving customer complaints best practices
Resolving Customer ComplaintsBest Practices
  • Make it easy for clients to complain
  • Respond quickly to complaints
  • Resolve complaints on the first contact
  • Use computers to manage complaints
  • Recruit the best for customer service jobs
tools for tqm
Tools for TQM
  • Quality Function Deployment
    • House of Quality
  • Taguchi technique
  • Quality loss function
  • Pareto charts
  • Process charts
  • Cause-and-effect diagrams
  • Statistical process control
six sigma quality
Six Sigma Quality
  • A philosophy and set of methods companies use to eliminate defects in their products and processes
  • Seeks to reduce variation in the processes that lead to product defects
  • The name, “six sigma” refers to the variation that exists within plus or minus three standard deviations of the process outputs
slide30

六標準差基本原則

  • 徹底的顧客導向。
  • COPQ與CTQ是6 Sigma的指導原則。
  • 重視流程。
  • 以6 Sigma品質水準為目標。
  • 以平均值與變異來評價流程。
  • 共同語言就是統計手法。
  • DMAIC是6 Sigma活動的改革戰略。
six sigma quality continued
Six Sigma Quality (Continued)
  • Six Sigma allows managers to readily describe process performance using a common metric: Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO)
six sigma quality continued33
Six Sigma Quality (Continued)

So, for every one million letters delivered this city’s postal managers can expect to have 1,000 letters incorrectly sent to the wrong address.

Example of Defects Per Million Opportunities (DPMO) calculation. Suppose we observe 200 letters delivered incorrectly to the wrong addresses in a small city during a single day when a total of 200,000 letters were delivered. What is the DPMO in this situation?

Cost of Quality: What might that DPMO mean in terms of over-time employment to correct the errors?

six sigma quality dmaic cycle
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle
  • Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC)
  • Developed by General Electric as a means of focusing effort on quality using a methodological approach
  • Overall focus of the methodology is to understand and achieve what the customer wants
  • DMAIC consists of five steps….
six sigma quality dmaic cycle continued
Six Sigma Quality: DMAIC Cycle (Continued)

1. Define (D)

Customers and their priorities

2. Measure (M)

Process and its performance

3. Analyze (A)

Causes of defects

4. Improve (I)

Remove causes of defects

5. Control (C)

Maintain quality

example to illustrate the process
Example to illustrate the process…
  • We are the maker of this cereal. Consumer Reports has just published an article that shows that we frequently have less than 15 ounces of cereal in a box.
  • What should we do?
step 1 define
Step 1 - Define
  • What is the critical-to-quality characteristic?
  • The CTQ (critical-to-quality) characteristic in this case is the weight of the cereal in the box.
slide38

Define 工具

  • 【SIPOC圖】通常在DMAIC界定開始成形綜觀需改善流程所劃出,用以找出品質關鍵環節(Critical-To-Quality,CTQ),SIPOC分別代表:Supplier:供應者,提供流程所需的人、流程或公司。Input:投入,提供之物料或資訊。Process:流程,內部流程步驟。Output:產出,交給顧客的產品、服務、資訊。Customer:顧客,流程的下個步驟或終端客戶。
2 measure
2 - Measure
  • How would we measure to evaluate the extent of the problem?
  • What are acceptable limits on this measure?
  • 找出CTQ(Critical to Quality)
  • 比較公司內部的實際情況與與CTQ中間所發生的缺陷
2 measure continued
2 – Measure (continued)
  • Let’s assume that the government says that we must be within ± 5 percent of the weight advertised on the box.
  • Upper Tolerance Limit = 16 + .05(16) = 16.8 ounces
  • Lower Tolerance Limit = 16 – .05(16) = 15.2 ounces
2 measure continued42
2. Measure (continued)
  • We go out and buy 1,000 boxes of cereal and find that they weight an average of 15.875 ounces with a standard deviation of .529 ounces.
  • What percentage of boxes are outside the tolerance limits?
slide43

Process

Mean = 15.875

Std. Dev. = .529

Upper Tolerance

= 16.8

Lower Tolerance

= 15.2

What percentage of boxes are defective (i.e. less than 15.2 oz)?

Z = (x – Mean)/Std. Dev. = (15.2 – 15.875)/.529 = -1.276

NORMSDIST(Z) = NORMSDIST(-1.276) = .100978

Approximately, 10 percent of the boxes have less than 15.2

Ounces of cereal in them!

step 3 analyze how can we improve the capability of our cereal box filling process
Step 3 - Analyze - How can we improve the capability of our cereal box filling process?
  • Decrease Variation
  • Center Process
  • Increase Specifications
step 4 improve how good is good enough motorola s six sigma
Step 4 – Improve – How good is good enough?Motorola’s “Six Sigma”
  • 6s minimum from process center to nearest spec
motorola s six sigma
Motorola’s “Six Sigma”
  • Implies 2 ppB “bad” with no process shift
  • With 1.5s shift in either direction from center (process will move), implies 3.4 ppm “bad”.
step 5 control
Step 5 – Control
  • Statistical Process Control (SPC)
    • Use data from the actual process
    • Estimate distributions
    • Look at capability - is good quality possible
    • Statistically monitor the process over time
analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement flow chart
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Flow Chart

No, Continue…

Material Received from Supplier

Inspect Material for Defects

Defects found?

Yes

Can be used to find quality problems

Return to Supplier for Credit

tools
Tools
  • Tools for generating ideas
    • Check sheet
    • Scatter diagram
    • Cause and effect diagram
  • Tools to organize data
    • Pareto charts
    • Process charts (Flow diagrams)
  • Tools for identifying problems
    • Histograms
    • Statistical process control chart
analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement run chart

0.58

0.56

Diameter

0.54

0.52

0.5

0.48

0.46

0.44

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Time (Hours)

Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Run Chart

Can be used to identify when equipment or processes are not behaving according to specifications

analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement pareto analysis
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Pareto Analysis

Can be used to find when 80% of the problems may be attributed to 20% of the

causes

80%

Frequency

Design

Assy.

Instruct.

Purch.

Training

Other

analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement checksheet
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Checksheet

Can be used to keep track of defects or used to make sure people collect data in a correct manner

Monday

  • Billing Errors
    • Wrong Account
    • Wrong Amount
  • A/R Errors
    • Wrong Account
    • Wrong Amount
analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement histogram
Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Histogram

Can be used to identify the frequency of quality defect occurrence and display quality performance

Number of Lots

0

1

2

3

4

Defectsin lot

Data Ranges

analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement cause effect diagram

Machine

Man

Effect

Environment

Method

Material

Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Cause & Effect Diagram

The results or effect

Possible causes:

Can be used to systematically track backwards to find a possible cause of a quality problem (or effect)

cause and effect diagram example57
Cause and Effect Diagram Example

Method

Manpower

Main Cause

Too many defects

Material

Machinery

Main Cause

cause and effect diagram example58
Cause and Effect Diagram Example

Method

Manpower

Drill

Over

Time

Too many defects

Wood

Steel

Lathe

Material

Machinery

Sub-Cause

cause and effect diagram example59

Tired

Drill

Over

Slow

Time

Too many defects

Old

Wood

Steel

Lathe

Cause and Effect Diagram Example

Method

Manpower

Material

Machinery

analytical tools for six sigma and continuous improvement control charts

UCL

1020

1010

1000

LCL

990

980

970

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

Analytical Tools for Six Sigma and Continuous Improvement: Control Charts

Can be used to monitor ongoing production process quality and quality conformance to stated standards of quality

other six sigma tools
Other Six Sigma Tools
  • Opportunity Flow Diagram used to graphically show those activities that add value from those that are performed (and maybe could be reduced or removed) that do not add value to the finished product
  • Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (DMEA) is a structured approach to identify, estimate, prioritize, and evaluate risk of possible failures at each stage in the process
  • Design of Experiments (DOE) a statistical test to determine cause-and-effect relationships between process variables and output
six sigma roles and responsibilities
Six Sigma Roles and Responsibilities
  • Executive leaders must champion the process of improvement
  • Corporation-wide training in Six Sigma concepts and tools
  • Setting stretch objectives for improvement
  • Continuous reinforcement and rewards
slide64

五標準差障礙 (Five Sigma Wall)

  • DAMIC的改善手法最多只能做到五標準差,Design for Six Sigma(DFSS)則是從研發及重新設計流程著手,所以可以獲得大幅的改善,同時可以有系統地防止錯誤的發生。DFSS強調在產品設計時便「設計正確的產品」,讓產品開發一次就做對,因此便可避免事後修改的成本。DFSS能跨越Five Sigma Wall的理由非常明顯,因為DFSS考慮到了DMAIC沒有的「產品設計」
slide66

六個準差與傳統品質管理之比較

  • QC(Quality Control,品質管理),乃是以工程為對象,並以作業改善及工程設計為導向。
  • TQC(Total Quality Control,全公司品質管理),它是將現場的工程改善之流程圖化的手法,應用到間接部門。
  • TQM(Total Quality Management,綜合性的品質管理),是為了結束自己職場上不合效益的事項,而成立的小組活動 。
  • ISO9000將我們的工作品質書面化,但是對改善產品或流程品質並無太大助益。
slide67

六標準差成功的關鍵因素

  • 提高客戶滿意/增加利潤
  • 是由上到下的推動歷程
  • 六標準差的組織架構
  • 專案負責人/黑帶
  • 人員能力的訓練
  • DMAIC(發音為Deh-maik)有效降低成本
  • 小結、決定六標準差成功的重要條件
slide68

決定六標準差成功的重要條件

  • (一)領導者的支持與參與
  • (二)必須持之以恆
  • (三)要有全職的架構
  • (四)要有願景
the shingo system fail safe design
The Shingo System: Fail-Safe Design
  • Shingo’s argument:
    • SQC methods do not prevent defects
    • Defects arise when people make errors
    • Defects can be prevented by providing workers with feedback on errors
  • Poka-Yoke includes:
    • Checklists
    • Special tooling that prevents workers from making errors
iso 9000
ISO 9000
  • Series of standards agreed upon by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
  • Adopted in 1987
  • More than 100 countries
  • A prerequisite for global competition?
  • ISO 9000 directs you to "document what you do and then do as you documented"
slide71
ISO 簡介
  • ISO為「International Organization for Standardization」之簡稱,係由世界各國標準機構參加為會員所組成,為制定與發行國際標準的機準。ISO 9000系列係該機構針對「品質保證制度」所制定之標準。於1987年3月份公佈,並於1994年7月1日修訂第二版。由於ISO 9000系列品質保證標準的產生,在世界各國之間對品質保證制度有了共同的語言,因此世界各國紛紛將它列為國家標準。我國亦於1990年3月16日將它列為中國國家標準CNS 12680系列。對廠商而言,以推動ISO 9000制度來達成及維持顧客的要求。而ISO9000制度的實施使其本 身對品質達成情形具有信心。再者藉由第三者認證來展現其本身對滿足顧客要求方面的能力,使顧客亦深具信心。
slide72
ISO 簡介
  • ISO 9000系列共包含9000, 9001, 9002, 9003及9004五部份。其中ISO9000及ISO 9004為標準之選擇、應用及實施方面的指導綱要,ISO 9001,ISO 9002及ISO 9003則是三種提供廠商選用之品質保證模式。其說明如下:
    • ISO 9001 設計、開發、生產、安裝與服務之品質保證模式
    • ISO 9002 生產、安裝及服務之品質保證模式
    • ISO 9003 最終檢驗與測試之品質保證模式
iso 900073
如何建立「ISO 9000」文件系統?
  • 在ISO 9000的4.2項「品質制度」中有規定,廠商應備有「品質手冊」,以涵蓋ISO 9000之各項要求。此手冊應包含或對照連接至品質制度中之各項書面程序,因此一般而言均依下述架構整合一完整的文件系統。
slide74
內容
  • 標題編號頁次
  • 目的
  • 範圍
  • 權責
  • 定義
  • 相關文件
  • 流程圖
  • 作業內容
  • 附件
slide75
工具與方法

魚骨圖、關連圖及冰山圖

步驟一:根據現場觀察,以及與人員訪談,分析出所有的要因。

步驟二:經由小組討論,圈選出幾項比較重要的問題,並依問題畫出關連圖。關連圖是要將錯綜複雜的原因-結果,以論理

方法找出其關係,並以箭頭方式相連起來,箭頭代表”結果”是正一分,箭尾代表”原因”是負一分,並累計每一項的分數。

步驟三:經由每一項問題的分數,畫出冰山圖。分數愈大,排在愈上面,分數愈小,排在愈下面。在最低層的為主要的真因,上層則為結果。

步驟四:取下層的真因,並針對這些作改善並提出對策

qs 9000
QS 9000
  • 美國三大汽車廠福特、通用、克萊斯勒將其各自之品保標準在1994年9月整合為QS 9000品保標準,通用於三大汽車廠。
  • 對象:
    • 第一層供應商(TIER ONE SUPPLIERS)被要求取得QS 9000。
    • 三大車廠在美國國內、外之直接供應商或其OEM工廠。
    • 美國重型貨車製造廠之直接供應商或其OEM工廠。
    • 第二層供應商(TIER TWO SUPPLIERS OR SUB-CONTRACTORS)鼓勵取得QS 9000。
  • 範圍:負有直接設計責任,並提供生產用及/或服務用之物料、零組件以及服務之所有供應商或其OEM工廠。僅參與製造上述物料、零組件及服務之所有供應商或其OEM工廠。供熱處理、鈑金、噴漆或其它處理/加工服務之供應商或其OEM工廠。
iso 14000
ISO 14000
  • SO 14000系列包含有指導和計劃兩方面文件,可幫助各個組織發展及維護其環境管理系統中明確規定的環境政策與目標。ISO 14001是此系列中目前唯一流通的計劃標準,包含些許客觀性稽核要求。它引導關於公司運作上的基本要素,包括系統規定和目標、文件化、訓練、溝通、操作控制、緊急應變準備、監督與衡量、矯正與預防措施、記錄以及稽核。
  • ISO 14001則是目前唯一針對環境管理系統所制定的標準
  • 由於ISO 14001和ISO 9000具有共同的管理原則,您可選擇現有的ISO 9000系統作為環境管理系統之基礎。整合您目前的管理系統,使其功能加倍
tl 9000
TL-9000品保系統驗證
  • 全球通訊業包括通訊服務提供者(Amertech, AT&t, Bell Atlantic, SBC..ies.)及硬、軟體供應商(Siemens,3COM, 3M Telcom, Cisco, Fujitsu, ADC, Lucent, Motorola, NEC, Ericsson, Nokia, Unisys ..more than 60 company)在1996年組成QuEST Forum,所發展之通訊電子業品質系統標準TL- 9000。
  • TL-9000=ISO-9001+全球通訊業共通性要求標準
slide79
內容
  • ISO 9000:一般來說,ISO9000指的是一個品保系統的一系列條款,台灣的相對應條文是CNS12680
  • ISO 9001(1994):品質制度--設計,開發,生產,安裝與服務之品質保證模式。它是一個從設計到安裝到售後服務,幾乎一個組織內(可能是公司,工廠,或財團法人甚至是商店)所有經營的項目都列入管制。目前的最新版本是1994年版。(台灣是83年版)。申請9001是不是就比9002要強?其實不見得,有些組織內有能力做9001(包括設計管制)但卻申請9002,因為不願讓外人接觸開發設計的業務機密。反過來說,有人沒有設計部門卻也申請9001,只是認為1比2要好,這是錯誤的觀念,申請9001把設計列入管制,有時反而會造成設計工程師的反彈,認為綁死了創意也說不定。ISO9001共有20條款。台灣的相對應條文叫 CNS 12681.
slide80
內容
  • ISO 9002(1994):品質制度--生產,安裝與服務之品質保證模式。ISO9002共有19個條款,注意,與ISO9001相比較,少了一個4.4,和9001的差別在於把設計管制排除在外,管制起點從接單,製造到銷售,售後服務等。
  • ISO 9003(1994):最終檢查與試驗之品質保證模式。與ISO9001相較,少了4.4設計管制,4.6採購管制,4.9製程管制,4.19服務,只偏重在售後服務的管制措施,9003的系統只有在端末管制,較不能符合預防措施的精神,一般極少申請此種驗證。台灣相對應的條款是CNS12683.
  • ISO 9004-1(1994): 品質管理與品質保證系統基礎第一部分:ISO9000家族使用的入門指導綱要。台灣相對應的條款是CNS12684-1。
three forms of iso certification
Three Forms of ISO Certification

1. First party: A firm audits itself against ISO 9000 standards

2. Second party: A customer audits its supplier

3. Third party: A "qualified" national or international standards or certifying agency serves as auditor

external benchmarking steps
External Benchmarking Steps

1. Identify those processes needing improvement

2. Identify a firm that is the world leader in performing the process

3. Contact the managers of that company and make a personal visit to interview managers and workers

4. Analyze data

services industries
Services industries
  • Service quality is more difficult to measure than for goods
  • Service quality perceptions depend on
    • Expectations versus reality
    • Process and outcome
  • Types of service quality
    • Normal: Routine service delivery
    • Exceptional: How problems are handled
goods versus services
Goods versus Services

GoodService

  • Can be resold
  • Can be inventoried
  • Some aspects of quality measurable
  • Selling is distinct from production
  • Reselling unusual
  • Difficult to inventory
  • Quality difficult to measure
  • Selling is part of service
goods versus services continued
Goods versus Services - continued

Good Service

  • Product is transportable
  • Site of facility important for cost
  • Often easy to automate
  • Revenue generated primarily from tangible product
  • Provider, not product is transportable
  • Site of facility important for customer contact
  • Often difficult to automate
  • Revenue generated primarily from intangible service.
service quality attributes

Reliability

Responsiveness

Tangibles

Competence

Access

Security

Courtesy

© 1995 Corel Corp.

Credibility

Communication

Service Quality Attributes

Under-standing

service quality measurement servqual
Service Quality Measurement:Servqual
  • A perceived service quality questionnaire survey methodology
  • Examines “Dimensions of Service Quality” including: Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, Empathy, and Tangibles (e.g., appearance of physical facilities, equipment, etc.)
pzb parasuram zeithaml berry
服務品質的構面(PZB; Parasuram, Zeithaml, Berry )
  • 可靠性:代表可靠地與正確地執行已承諾的服務之能力。
  • 回應性:代表協助顧客與提供立即服務之意願。讓顧客等待會造成不必要之負面認知;當服務失敗發生時,秉持著專業精神迅速地恢復服務則可造成非常正面的品質認知。
  • 確實性:代表員工的知識、禮貌,以及傳達信任與信心的能力。
  • 關懷性:代表提供顧客個人化關心之能力。此構面之特徵包括:平易近人、敏感度高、以及盡力地瞭解顧客的需要。
  • 有形性:代表實際的設施、設備、員工、以及外在溝通資料。
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服務品質的缺口
  • 缺口一:是顧客的期望與管理者對這些期望的認知二者間的差距。缺口一的發生是由於管理者不能完全地瞭解顧客期望的產生。要消弭這項缺口的策略性方法包括:改進市場研究、管理者與第一線的員工之間培養更佳的溝通方式、減少與顧客疏遠的管理階層數量。
  • 缺口二:是由於管理者沒有能力制訂服務品質的目標水準,以符合對顧客期望的認知,並將其轉變成可實行的計畫書。此缺口的發生是由於管理者對於服務品質缺乏承諾,或是覺得要符合顧客期望是不可能的。設定目標與將服務提供過程標準化可以消弭此缺口。
  • 缺口三 :是指服務績效的缺口,是由於真正的服務提供無法達到管理者所設定的計畫,因而產生績效上的差距。缺乏團隊合作、不良的員工招募、不足的訓練及不適當的工作設計等均是造成此缺口的原因。
  • 缺口四: 由於誇大的承諾與第一線員工缺乏資訊,因而導致服務提供與外部誇大的傳播之間差距。
  • 缺口五:品質缺口。即顧客的期望與實際認知的服務間的差距,此差距受到上述四個缺口的大小與方向所影響,可以藉由降低服務機構在管理部門所發現的前四項缺口來消弭。
service quality measurement servqual continued
Service Quality Measurement: Servqual (Continued)
  • New version of this methodology is called “e-Service Quality” dealing service on the Internet
  • Dimensions of Service Quality on the e-Service methodology include: Reliability, Responsiveness, Access, Flexibility, Ease of Navigation, Efficiency, Assurance/Trust, Security/Privacy, Price Knowledge, Site Aesthetics, and Customization/Personalization
inspection
Inspection
  • Involves examining items to see if an item is good or defective
  • Detect a defective product
    • Does not correct deficiencies in process or product
  • Issues
    • When to inspect
    • Where in process to inspect
when and where to inspect
When and Where to Inspect
  • At the supplier’s plant while the supplier is producing
  • At your facility upon receipt of goods from the supplier
  • Before costly or irreversible processes
  • During the step-by-step production processes
  • When production or service is complete
  • Before delivery from your facility
  • At the point of customer contact
inspection points in services
Inspection Points in Services

Organization

Issues to Consider

Some Points of Inspection

Shortages, courtesy, speed, accuracy

Bank

Teller

stations

Loan

accounts

Checking

accounts

Collateral, proper credit checks, rates, terms of loans, default rates, loan rates

Accuracy, speed of entry, rate of overdraws

inspection points in services94
Inspection Points in Services

Organization

Issues to Consider

Some Points of Inspection

Clean, uncluttered, organized, level of stockouts, amply supply, rotation of goods

Retail store

Stockrooms

Display areas

Sales counters

Attractive, well-organized, stocked, visible goods, good lighting

Neat, courteous knowledgeable personnel; waiting time; accuracy in credit checking and sales entry

inspection points in services95
Inspection Points in Services

Issues to Consider

Organization

Some Points of Inspection

Clean, proper storage, unadulterated food, health regulations observed, well-organized

Restaurant

Kitchen

Cashier station

Dining areas

Speed, accuracy, appearance

Clean, comfortable, regular monitoring by personnel,