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Celebrating 25 years of Kolb’s learning cycle: An appreciative enquiry for 2009. Extracts from slide presentation by Reg Dennick, Professor in Medical Education at the University of Nottingham – reproduced with permission. Experiential Learning.

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celebrating 25 years of kolb s learning cycle an appreciative enquiry for 2009

Celebrating 25 years of Kolb’s learning cycle: An appreciative enquiry for 2009

Extracts from slide presentation by Reg Dennick, Professor in Medical Education at the University of Nottingham – reproduced with permission

www.medev.ac.uk

slide2

Experiential Learning

“Learning is the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience.”

David Kolb

origins of the kolb cycle
Origins of the Kolb Cycle

Dewey

Lewin

Piaget

How experience can be transformed into action

Constructivist mechanism of learning: experience to abstraction

Importance of individual experience in learning

other influences on kolb
Other influences on Kolb

Vygotsky

Freire

Jung

Experiential learning as liberating and leading to ‘critical consciousness’

Psychological types and learning styles.

Individuation.

Experiential learning is a social process and is influenced by cultural tools.

slide5

The ‘Prehension’ dimension: modes of grasping experience

Concrete Experience

APPREHENSION: the tangible, felt qualities of immediate experience

COMPREHENSION: conceptual interpretation and symbolic representations

Abstract conceptualisation

slide6

The ‘Transformation’ dimension: modes of processing experience

EXTENSION: manipulation of the external world

Active experimentation

Reflective observation

INTENTION: manipulation of the mental world

slide7

Structural dimensions underlying the process of experiential learning and the resulting basic knowledge forms. (Kolb, 1984)

Concrete experience

Grasping by APPREHENSION

Transformation by

Reflective observation

Active experimentation

EXTENSION

INTENSION

Grasping by COMPREHENSION

Abstract conceptualisation

slide8

What shall I do?

Outer world

Reflection and action on inner world produces conjectures and hypotheses about outer world

Reflection on outer world builds up inner model

What does it mean?

Inner world

it s not just a cycle
It’s not just a cycle!
  • All four learning modes are present to the learner simultaneously
  • The learner is constantly moving between the concrete and the abstract and between reflection and action.
slide10
“…all forms of human adaptation (learning) approximate to scientific inquiry.”

David Kolb 1984

practical implications of kolb s cycle for learning
Practical implications of Kolb’s cycle for learning
  • Getting round the cycle
  • Appraisal & revalidation
  • Mentoring
  • Reflection
  • Action planning
experiential learning
Experiential learning
  • All learning is learning from experience
  • Work-experience
  • ‘On the job training’
  • Doing the job & learning simultaneously
  • Working independently
  • Self-directed learning
  • Self-monitoring
  • Reflection
  • Educational & clinical supervision
  • Mentoring
  • Appraisal
getting the experiences
Getting the experiences

At each stage in the cycle, how can the learner optimise their learning?

What stands in the way?

What opportunities are there?

reflecting on experience
Reflecting on experience
  • Debriefing
  • Getting feedback
  • Critical incidents
  • Self-evaluation
building up knowledge skills attitudes
Building up knowledge, skills & attitudes
  • Reading the literature
  • Self-directed learning
  • Recording knowledge
  • Practising skills
  • Developing attitudes
deciding on action
Deciding on action
  • Personal development plans
  • Action plans
  • Personal objectives
  • Feasibility
  • Achievable?
how does reflection help you learn
How does reflection help you learn?
  • Experience is transformed into knowledge by reflection
  • Reflection elaborates learning
  • Reflection challenges assumptions
  • Reflection helps relate theory to practice
  • Feedback helps reflection
  • Reflection can be guided via ‘professional conversations’
personal professional development portfolio based learning appraisal supervision
Personal & professional development: portfolio-based learning, appraisal/supervision
  • All based on and follow the Kolb cycle.
  • Experiences are recorded in Log-book/Portfolio
  • Reflections are recorded and/or facilitated by ‘professional conversation’ with mentor, supervisor.
  • Knowledge, skills and attitudes are built from experience plus reflection and connected to the literature and other knowledge tools.
  • Action plans for further experience are formulated via professional conversations.
slide20

EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING: KEY PRINCIPLES

1.Have experiences

2. Reflect individually and/or with others

3. Be aware of your ‘learning style’

3. Get and give feedback

4. Actively build mental models, practical skills and attitudes

5. Test hypotheses and action plan

6. Use Log Books & Portfolios to record experiences and reflect

criticisms of kolb
Criticisms of Kolb
  • It doesn’t stress the social dimension of learning: it focuses on the individual
  • Some learners do not learn from experience
  • Some learners do not reflect
  • Skills can be learned without thought
  • Ignores social dimension of learning
slide22

The basic knowledge forms (Kolb, 1984)

Concrete experience

?

DIVERGENT knowledge

?

ACCOMMODATIVE knowledge

?

?

?

Reflective observation

Active experimentation

?

?

?

ASSIMILATIVE knowledge

?

CONVERGENT knowledge

?

Abstract conceptualisation

slide24

Doing things, carrying out plans and getting involved in new experiences. The individual adapts themselves to changing immediate circumstances. Problems are solved by trial and error often using other peoples knowledge. Theories are easily discarded and are subordinate to practical facts. Individuals are at ease with people but are often seen as ‘pushy’.

Imaginative ability and awareness of meanings and values. View situations from many perspectives and attempt to see the whole picture. Thinking generates alternative ideas and implications. Good at brainstorming. Interested in people and their feelings.

Concrete experience

ACCOMMODATIVE knowledge

DIVERGENT knowledge

Reflective observation

Active experimentation

CONVERGENT knowledge

ASSIMILATIVE knowledge

Problem solving, decision making and the practical application of ideas. Thinking converges onto the solution of a question or problem, using the hypothetico-deductive method. Orientated towards technical tasks and problems rather than social or interpersonal issues.

Inductive reasoning and the creation of theoretical models by synthesising varied observations into an integrated explanation. More concerned with logically sound abstract ideas than people.

Abstract conceptualisation

slide25

Doing things, carrying out plans and getting involved in new experiences. The individual adapts themselves to changing immediate circumstances. Problems are solved by trial and error often using other peoples knowledge. Theories are easily discarded and are subordinate to practical facts. Individuals are at ease with people but are often seen as ‘pushy’.

Imaginative ability and awareness of meanings and values. View situations from many perspectives and attempt to see the whole picture. Thinking generates alternative ideas and implications. Good at brainstorming. Interested in people and their feelings.

Problem solving, decision making and the practical application of ideas. Thinking converges onto the solution of a question or problem, using the hypothetico-deductive method. Orientated towards technical tasks and problems rather than social or interpersonal issues.

Inductive reasoning and the creation of theoretical models by synthesising varied observations into an integrated explanation. More concerned with logically sound abstract ideas than people.

slide26

Get involved, open-minded, enthusiastic, love new things: ‘I’ll try anything once’

Honey & Mumford Learning Styles

Practical, experimental, down to earth: ‘There is always a better way’

Activists

Pragmatists

Reflectors

Look for principles, logical, perfectionist: ‘What are the basic assumptions’

  • Stand back, think, cautious: ‘Look before you leap’

Theorists

slide30

Deep Learning (Going round the cycle)

Concrete experience

Active experimentation

Reflective Observation

  • Abstract conceptualisation
slide31

Surface Learning (short-circuit!)

Concrete experience

Reflective Observation

Active experimentation

  • Abstract conceptualisation
slide32

Trial & Error?

Concrete experience

Reflective Observation

Active experimentation

  • Abstract conceptualisation
as kolb said
As Kolb said…..

Psychological categorizations of people such as those depicted by psychological ‘types’ can too easily become stereotypes that tend to trivialize human complexity and thus end up denying human individuality rather than characterizing it. In addition, type theories often have a static and fixed connotation to their descriptions of individuals, lending a fatalistic view of human change and development.

  • Kolb, Experiential Learning (1982) p 63
slide34

Constructive Experience: implications for teaching.

1.Acknowledge and respect the learner and start from where they are.

2.Ascertain, activate and build on their prior knowledge.

3.Provide appropriate active learning experiences of an individual and social nature.

4.Facilitate reflection and provide feedback.

5.Recognise the tentative nature of knowledge and encourage enquiry.

6.Encourage individual responsibility for exploration, self-directed learning and action planning.

7.Develop a learning relationship, empathise.