HistoryMini-research Group 4: Mandy Lee (12) Sharon Lei (14) Judy Leung (16) Serena Liu (21)
Research area: The United Nations Organization ResearchQuestions: (1)What is the United Nations Organization? (2)Why was the United Nations Organization set up? (3) How can the United Nations Organization attain the aim of keeping world peace? (4) How successful is the United Nations Organization in the 20th century?
I am very busy, you’d better ask the others
(1) What is the United Nations Organization? • an international peacekeeping organization • established after the Second World War, on the 24 October 1945 • The UN Headquarter is in New York. there are totally 191 countries in the organization.
The functions of the United Nations • Maintain world peace • Promote self-government • Develop friendly relations among nations • Develop co-operation among nations • Defend human rights and basic freedom of human • Settling international disputes
(1) What is the United Nations Organization? • All the Member States, no matter it is large or small, rich or poor, with different political views and social systems, all of them have a voice and a vote in this process.
The General Assembly • composed of the representatives from all member states • each of them has one vote. • A meeting is held every year Main Functions: Press the Un budget Appoint the Secretary-General press the admission of new members Discuss on world issues
The Security Council • The 5 permanent members are China, the US, Britain, France and Russia. • Meetings will be held twice a year
The Security Council The functions and powers of the Security Council are: • to maintain international peace and security • settle disputes • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression • to take military action against an aggressor;
The Secretariat • the administrative section of the UN Kofi Annan of Ghana, the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Examples of the duties of the Secretariat: • to inform the world's communications media about the work of the United Nations; • to organize international conferences
The Economic and social Council • There are 54 member nations
The Functions and powers of the Economic and social Council: • to promote higher living standards, full employment, and to improve the economic conditions of the world • to encourage respect for human rights, basic freedom
The International Court of Justice • the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. • located at the Peace Palace in the Netherlands. • There are 15 judges to nine-year term,
The International Court of Justice The Functions of the Court: • to settle legal disputes which are submitted by the States involving international law • to give advise on the legal questions
The Trusteeship Council • made up of the five permanent members of the Security Council, • aims at promoting the self- government in non- independent countries. • the Council has stopped operation in November 1994
(2)Why was the United Nations Organization set up? • In 1939 the WWII broke out, marked the failure of the League of Nations, therefore after the WWII; • the UNO was set up to replace the League of Nations . Every big country must join the United Nations and once they join in they cannot withdraw. Each country needs to send an army for the United Nations.
(3)How can the United Nations Organization attain the aim of keeping world peace? -Member states need to sign an agreement as to settle disputes peacefully -Assumes operations including．peacemaking,．peacekeeping．humanitarian assistance．promotes disarmament to keep peace. -Other organizations like the UNICEF
Disarmament • Major goals of the United Nations:- Stopping the spread of arms - Reduce all weapons of mass destruction - Make suggestions for disarmament negotiations- Produce agreements Guns and military weaponsare collected. After the disarmament,guns were burnt in Kenya.
Peacemaking and building • -Keep peace through political means: supports the civil public security, elections and human rights
United Nations Children’s Fund • the only UN organization dedicated exclusively to children. • aims to help the children in the third world countries or in the countries suffering from wars or disasters
SettlingInternationalDisputes (4) How successful is the United Nations Organization in the 20th century Persian Affair 1946 The Berlin Blockade 1948-1949 The Korean War 1950-1953 The Arab-Israeli Conflicts (F) The Suez War 1956 (F) Failed Successful Successful Failed Failed
Summary Why did the UN failed? Reason 1: The permanent members of the Security Council have veto power(否決權) Reason 2: The UN is lack of effective power Reason 3: Lack of capital
Other Achievements Tsunami damaged the land • Promoting international co-operation • Respecting and protecting human rights • Providing Help for the people in poverty and hunger • Promote self-government
This is the end of our presentation. Thank You!