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Lesson 4. EVIDENCE OF DESIGN IN NATURE. Darwin on the Need to Rule Out Design. “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.” - The Origin of Species.

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Darwin on the Need to

Rule Out Design

“If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.”- The Origin of Species


The Search For Design

A Normal Part of Science!NASASpaceFlightsCrash InvestigationArson InvestigationInvestigation of Suspicious DeathsArchaeology


Arguments Against Design

  • Things can’t be designed because that would bring God into science.A stupid argument! In order to disprove design, evolutionists would have had to be watching since the beginning of the earth.
  • Things can’t be designed because we don’t like the way they are put together (e.g. the panda’s “thumb”).This only proves that if there is a designer, we either disagree with Him or don’t understand His purposes.

Arguments For Design

  • Opinion (e.g. beauty in nature implies a designer with a sense of beauty).Not very persuasive to someone who thinks nature is ugly.
  • ExtremeImprobabilityNo theoretical barrier says it’s impossible for a groundhog to make it across a busy 1000 lane superhighway - he just doesn’t.

Arguments For Design


A mousetrap is an example of an irreducibly complex machine. It must have a base, hammer, spring, latch, and trigger. If any one of them is missing or not working properly, it is not a mousetrap but a pile of junk.If any part of an irreducibly complex machine is missing or not working right, the whole thing is a useless waste of materials.


Minimal Function

A machine must have at least minimal function to be of any use.

It is not possible to make an irreducibly

complex machine by gradual changes

in a different type of machine. You could

modify a rat trap to make a mouse trap,

but you could not make one out of a

can opener. You would quickly have

a piece of junk that could neither

open cans nor catch mice.

Likewise, irreducibly complex mechanisms in living things could not have evolved from mechanisms of a different type. Natural selection would have eliminated the non-functioning intermediates.


DNA - Master Molecule of Life

DNA is a double helix made up of millions or billions of

the nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.

A few dozen nucleotides, out of millions or billions on the complete strand

It is subdivided into dozens of chromosomes, each of which may contain thousands of genes. The genes are made up of thousands of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T.

By using these in many different combinations, DNA can spell out the instructions to produce any type of living thing.


Functions of DNA

  • Cell Repair and Maintenance.DNA contains the instructions to put together hundreds of amino acids into each of the thousands of types of proteins the cell needs to work properly.
  • Cell Reproduction.It contains the instructions to link those proteins into a complete cell, as well as to reproduce itself so that offspring can also function properly and reproduce.
  • Survival and Diversity of the Kind..DNA contains far more genes than are visibly expressed in any individual. Unexpressed genes are available to pass on to future generations.DNA can carry so much extra information that if one breeding pair had the right combination of genes, they could produce an entire kind containing multiple species and breeds.

God planned you when He created Adam and Eve!


The Blood Coagulation Cascade

If any part is missing or not working right,

you either bleed to death or die of blood clots.

Proteins in normal type promote clot formation; Proteins followed by an asterisk are activated forms;

Names in italics and arrows ending in bars indicate proteins acting to prevent, localize, or remove blood clots.

(Source: Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box)



Antibodies can bind to over 10 billion different shapes because of the billions of possible combinations of amino acids in the heavy and light chains.



One piece of the gene that will produce the heavy chain is randomly chosen from the 250 segments in cluster 1. This is added to one from segment 2 plus one from 3 and one from 4, giving over 100,000 possible heavy chains. The light chain is formed the same way, but not necessarily from the same segments. This amazingly efficient system enables less than 300 gene segments to produce over 10 billion distinct types of antibodies.

Source: Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box


Irreducible Complexity

Of The Antibody System

It would be wasteful to have billions of unneeded antibodies of all types floating around in the bloodstream.

Antibodies are produced in large quantities only when needed. This occurs because some of them stay fastened to the outside of their cells and send messages to the manufacturing apparatus only when they capture a matching invader. The new mass produced antibodies then move freely throughout the body to catch the invaders.

All 3 components needed for at least minimal function.

Not only is the system irreducibly complex - there is nothing in invertebrates from which it could have evolved!


Bacterial Motors

Certain bacteria swim by means of rotary flagella. These are

driven by reversible electric motors!


The Bombardier Beetle

An ordinary looking beetle

with an extraordinary

defense mechanism

Could this system evolve one step at a time? All of it is programmed in the beetle’s DNA. Unless all the parts are present, the whole system is useless. Even if all the parts were present, if any one of them did not work right, the beetle’s ancestors might have exploded!


Cleaning Symbiosis

When certain species of small birds, fish, or shrimp

walk or swim up to certain vicious types of predators

(crocodiles, sharks, barracudas, etc.), the predator

opens its mouth and allows them to enter, pick off

debris, and leave safely. Any other species get eaten.

If this behavior is the result of mutations, then

multiple species of cleaners must have acquired

mutations making them want to enter a predator’s

mouth at the same time those predators got

mutations that made them decide not to eat the


It sure is lucky for the cleaners that the predators’

mutations happened at the same time!





  • A supernatural God created the universe. Though most things are explainable by natural processes, some things may not be.
  • God is powerful enough to use any method He chooses, including instantaneous creation.
  • Everything must be explainable by purely natural processes.
    • Atheistic evolution: There is no God.
    • Theistic evolution: There is a God, but he does not intervene in nature.
  • Since there could be no other natural processes besides evolution, evolution is the only possibility.




  • 3. Creation does not automatically require any specific age.
    • Recent Creation: The earth is probably less than 10,000 years old.
    • Gap Theory & Progressive Creation: Because evolutionists must know what they are talking about, the earth has to be billions of years old.
  • Since evolution has never been seen in human history, it must be very slow. The universe and earth have to be billions of years old.

The Invalid Logic of Evolution

If I am at Victoria falls, then I am at one of thehighest waterfalls in the world.TRUE.If I am at one of the highest waterfalls in the world,then I am at Victoria falls.FALSE.If evolution is true, then the universe and life would exist.TRUE.If the universe and life exist, then evolution is true.FALSE.ALL TEACHING OF “EVOLUTION ONLY” IN SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE INVALID USE OF A LOGICAL CONVERSE.