Lesson 4. EVIDENCE OF DESIGN IN NATURE. Darwin on the Need to Rule Out Design. “If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.” - The Origin of Species.
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Rule Out Design
“If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed which could not possibly have been formed by numerous successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down.”- The Origin of Species
A mousetrap is an example of an irreducibly complex machine. It must have a base, hammer, spring, latch, and trigger. If any one of them is missing or not working properly, it is not a mousetrap but a pile of junk.If any part of an irreducibly complex machine is missing or not working right, the whole thing is a useless waste of materials.
A machine must have at least minimal function to be of any use.
It is not possible to make an irreducibly
complex machine by gradual changes
in a different type of machine. You could
modify a rat trap to make a mouse trap,
but you could not make one out of a
can opener. You would quickly have
a piece of junk that could neither
open cans nor catch mice.
Likewise, irreducibly complex mechanisms in living things could not have evolved from mechanisms of a different type. Natural selection would have eliminated the non-functioning intermediates.
DNA is a double helix made up of millions or billions of
the nucleotides Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine.
A few dozen nucleotides, out of millions or billions on the complete strand
It is subdivided into dozens of chromosomes, each of which may contain thousands of genes. The genes are made up of thousands of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T.
By using these in many different combinations, DNA can spell out the instructions to produce any type of living thing.
God planned you when He created Adam and Eve!
If any part is missing or not working right,
you either bleed to death or die of blood clots.
Proteins in normal type promote clot formation; Proteins followed by an asterisk are activated forms;
Names in italics and arrows ending in bars indicate proteins acting to prevent, localize, or remove blood clots.
(Source: Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box)
Antibodies can bind to over 10 billion different shapes because of the billions of possible combinations of amino acids in the heavy and light chains.
One piece of the gene that will produce the heavy chain is randomly chosen from the 250 segments in cluster 1. This is added to one from segment 2 plus one from 3 and one from 4, giving over 100,000 possible heavy chains. The light chain is formed the same way, but not necessarily from the same segments. This amazingly efficient system enables less than 300 gene segments to produce over 10 billion distinct types of antibodies.
Source: Michael Behe, Darwin’s Black Box
Of The Antibody System
It would be wasteful to have billions of unneeded antibodies of all types floating around in the bloodstream.
Antibodies are produced in large quantities only when needed. This occurs because some of them stay fastened to the outside of their cells and send messages to the manufacturing apparatus only when they capture a matching invader. The new mass produced antibodies then move freely throughout the body to catch the invaders.
All 3 components needed for at least minimal function.
Not only is the system irreducibly complex - there is nothing in invertebrates from which it could have evolved!
Certain bacteria swim by means of rotary flagella. These are
driven by reversible electric motors!
An ordinary looking beetle
with an extraordinary
Could this system evolve one step at a time? All of it is programmed in the beetle’s DNA. Unless all the parts are present, the whole system is useless. Even if all the parts were present, if any one of them did not work right, the beetle’s ancestors might have exploded!
When certain species of small birds, fish, or shrimp
walk or swim up to certain vicious types of predators
(crocodiles, sharks, barracudas, etc.), the predator
opens its mouth and allows them to enter, pick off
debris, and leave safely. Any other species get eaten.
If this behavior is the result of mutations, then
multiple species of cleaners must have acquired
mutations making them want to enter a predator’s
mouth at the same time those predators got
mutations that made them decide not to eat the
It sure is lucky for the cleaners that the predators’
mutations happened at the same time!
If I am at Victoria falls, then I am at one of thehighest waterfalls in the world.TRUE.If I am at one of the highest waterfalls in the world,then I am at Victoria falls.FALSE.If evolution is true, then the universe and life would exist.TRUE.If the universe and life exist, then evolution is true.FALSE.ALL TEACHING OF “EVOLUTION ONLY” IN SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE INVALID USE OF A LOGICAL CONVERSE.