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Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes? PowerPoint Presentation
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Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes?

Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes?

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Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes?

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  1. Notes 3/25 Essays back end of class Quiz Thursday 3/27 No items today What about those boxes?

  2. Today: The Seams of Pangea Close!!! The End of Prehistory!! World Systems Begin!!

  3. Spanish and MexicanSW Environmental History • Historical Documents Methods • Spanish Explorers & Climate • Huge cultural & Technological differences • Spanish History and Institutions • Crown and Church • Mexican Period (very brief)

  4. Historical Methods: Examples • Inscriptions– El Morro NM • Diaries, including indirect observations • First robin of spring etc. • Governmental records (census) • Church Records (birth/death/marriage) • Private estate records (taxes) • Land survey records/scarred trees

  5. Temporal proximity? Spatial proximity? Expert or amateur? Changes in recorders? Scaled data or opinions? 28°F. vs. “Very cold” Historical Methods: Eyewitness Accounts

  6. Historical Documents: Can They Be Trusted? • Purpose of document? • Biased recorder? • Extreme events • Budget motives • Was the witness willing to tell the truth? • Independent corroboration** KEY***

  7. Worlds Collide: Columbian Consequences • Columbus—1492,1493, 1498, 1502 Cortez—1521--Mexico Pizarro—1532--Peru http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/

  8. Spanish Explorers/Colonizers of the Southwest • Alvar Nunez de Cabeza de Vaca Francisco Vázquez de Coronado don Juan de Oñate don Diego de Vargas

  9. Spanish Explorers of the Southwest • Francisco Vázquez de Coronado • Search for 7 Cities of Cibola • 1540-1542 • 300 Spaniards • 700 Indian Auxiliaries • 1000s of head of Livestock • An INVASION

  10. to Pecos Zuni Tucson Coronado’s Route in AZ? • Maps lost • Documents vague • Names ambiguous • Despoblado ??? • Disease??? • Native guides may have been lost • No longer familiar with AZ Highlands? Culiacan

  11. Coronado and Climate Chama=Red, Jemez=Black 1532-1548

  12. 1598: Don Juan de Oñate • Lead 500 colonists from Mexico to New Mexico • Livestock, supplies • Traveled through Rio Grande Pueblo country • First Spanish settlement in the American Southwest, near Santa Fe. • Fighting between the Spanish and Native Americans--- Acoma

  13. Onate and ClimateChama=Red, Jemez=Black 1598 1610

  14. Revolt and Reconquestencomienda= tributerepartimiento=paid forced labor • 1680 Pueblo Revolt • Puebloans organized and revolted against Spanish settlements • Pope-- Pecos • Spaniards retreated to El Paso • 1692 Reconquest • don Diego de Vargas

  15. Conflict and Climate 1680 1692

  16. Yalu’s Question? • Intelligence? • Racist • Technological ability? • Proximate • Cold vs. warm climate? • Exceptions exist

  17. Continental Axes Differ • Easier to share ideas & plants across longitude • Latitudinal sharing hindered by climate, environmental barriers

  18. Domestication dates • Early in Eurasia • Late in the Americas • Little independent domestication in SW

  19. Mammalian Domestication • Few candidates in the Americas (Llama, Alpaca) • In the SW: turkey and dog only

  20. Infectious Disease • Eurasians evolved with it, Americans didn’t • Germs could invade prior to the people • Devastating– 95% Mortality?

  21. Modern Homework: Disease Influenza Pandemic 1918 • Killed: 20 M world wide • Infected 25% of pop • Killed 600,000 US Most deaths: Sept-Nov Most deaths: 20-40 y/olds

  22. According to Diamond: • Environmental determinism • Grand-scale geography key • Eurasians had environmental advantages • Domesticated plants and animals early • Shared ideas easily • Developed metallurgy and writing • Co-evolved with infectious diseases • Dominated Americans at first contact

  23. Environmental Determinism (ED) vs. Environmentalism • ED = Environment sole determinant • Equatorial cultures unproductive: hot • Temperate cultures productive cooler • Racist, now discredited • Environmentalism • Environmental exerts influence, but not sole determinant • Culture plays a major role

  24. More Spanish Explorers of the Southwest • Padre Eusebio Francisco Kino • 1692-1711 • Reached Tucson • Jesuit • Technology • Livestock • Agriculture What did he see?

  25. Spanish Presidios • Military Forts • Protection • Indian Raiding • Livestock (cattle, horses) abundant • Farming nearby • Tucson, Tubac, El Paso • Ended in 1821.

  26. Spanish Missions • San Xavier del Bac (White Dove of the Desert) • Kino 1692 • 1770s rebuilt by Franciscans • Just SW of Tucson • Still active church • Still active farming • Tumacácori. http://www.smrc-missiontours.com/

  27. European  Native American Exchange • Cattle, Horses • Sheep, Goats, Pigs • Citrus, Figs • Metal tools • Guns • Distilled Alcohol • Epidemic Diseases • Writing

  28. Corn Beans Squash Turkey Chili Pepper Tomatillo Sunflower Walnut Acorn Mesquite Bean Agave Pine Nut Amaranth Chocolate Native American  European Exchange

  29. 1800s Historical Dates • Mexican Independence 1821 • Mexican-American War 1846 • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 • Gadsden Purchase 1854

  30. Mexican Independence, 1821 • Several large stock grants in AZ, 1820s • Abandoned 1830s and 1840s • Apache raiding

  31. Spanish-Mexican SW • Historical observations of people and environments • Not without limitations • Introduction of new environmental facets • Domesticated animals • Wheat • Diseases • Beginning of grazing in SW