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Latin American Experience with Enhancing Quality and Measuring Quality. South Asia Regional Conference on Education Quality New Delhi, India October 24-26, 2007 Eduardo Velez Sector Manager for Education Human Development Sector Latin America and the Caribbean.

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latin american experience with enhancing quality and measuring quality

Latin American Experience with Enhancing Quality and Measuring Quality

South Asia Regional Conference on Education Quality

New Delhi, India

October 24-26, 2007

Eduardo Velez

Sector Manager for Education

Human Development Sector

Latin America and the Caribbean

current situation in latin america assessment systems

Current Situation in Latin AmericaAssessment Systems

- Most countries have at least an incipient national assessment system based on standardized student achievement test, periodically applied to samples or all students of certain key grades in core academic subjects.

- Some countries have sub-national assessments systems

Most have participated in one or more international text

-A few countries and sub-national entities have been producing school- and system-report cards

report cards

Report Cards

Various models

Different variables

Different processes

All lead to focusing on outcomes, some give more space for consideration of processes

All promote improvement and accountability among various stakeholders

-

assessment systems what kinds of results are found

Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found?

Lower than expected

Huge differences in averages between rural and urban population, public and private schools, poor and non-poor, indigenous and non-indigenous populations

Increasingly small, if any, differences between girls and boys.

Slow change in outcomes

assessment systems what kinds of results are found positive results

Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found? Positive results

The following are important inputs: school climate, high expectations, principal’s leadership and permanence, homework, peer effects, educational materials, teacher’s satisfaction and knowledge of subject matter, active pedagogy, parents’ SES and participation, use of classroom assessment as a pedagogical tool, Time on homework, interest in subject, student perception of relationship with teacher, understanding that science & math associated w/ better job opportunities & future financial security, Mother’s education, home educational resources, assessment systems, school autonomy (process and human resources), less influence from unions, ……..

just like everywhere else!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

assessment systems what kinds of results are found negative results

Assessment Systems. What kinds of results are found? Negative results

The following characteristics have a negative impact:

-Memorization, rote learning

-Mother’s employment

-Number of siblings

-High student-teacher ratio

-Frontal teaching method

-Technology has mixed results

assessment systems report cards big challenge

Assessment Systems & Report Cards. Big challenge.

Quality of Education is the challenge

It should take 2 to 3 (at very most) grades to learn to read. If it is taking 4 to 6, are systems working at about 50% effectiveness?

Poorest 53 countries spend $16 billion on primary education, are they “wasting” $8 billion of it?

pisa 2000 math scores dispersion
NLD

HKG

JPN

KOR

FIN

NZL

CAN

AUS

GBR

CHE

BEL

FRA

AUT

ISL

DNK

LIE

SWE

IRL

NO

CZE

USA

DEU

HUN

RUS

ESP

POL

LVA

ITA

PRT

LUX

GRC

ISR

THA

BUL

ROM

ARG

MEX

CHL

MKD

ALB

IDN

BRA

PER

PISA 2000: Math Scores & Dispersion

600

Mean

Score

400

200

280

Dispersion

240

340

380

420

assessment and accountability the uruguay experience 1
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (1)
  • Participation, consensus building and face to face discussion with teachers, principals, and supervisors (sample, all schools get results, all teachers can apply the test to their students, and can compare with national results)
assessment and accountability the uruguay experience 2
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (2)
  • In-service teacher training as the first consequence of the assessment (starting with assessments’ results, voluntary and collective --involves the teacher team of a school--, exchange of experience with other teams, all year round—once a fortnight; participants receive 20% of salary; schools in poor areas are priority; focus on how to teach; and emphasis on practical activities in the classroom)
assessment and accountability the uruguay experience 3
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Uruguay Experience (3)
  • Evidence on the impact

-70% of teachers support national assessment

-70.2% read MOE’s publications

-55% changed teaching and evaluating practices

-78% apply school based assessment

“When MOE appeared I had a brick in each hand.. Little by little they convinced us.. Now it is a valuable experience. We have changed our practice”

slide14
Language, percentage of students achieving an acceptable level in the test /Primary 6th grade

Poor ………………………………………Rich

EVOLUTION OF THE RESULTS BY SOCIAL CONTEXT

assessment and accountability the mexican experience 1
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (1)
  • Increase Autonomy

To improve quality, efforts are needed to move decision-making to the school level, thus increasing school autonomy

Increasing school autonomy can compensate disadvantaged schools

Autonomy can help raise the schooling outcomes of indigenous peoples

School autonomy reinforces the role of homework, learning styles and future value of education

With more autonomy, schools could determine the appropriate mix of technology for their students

assessment and accountability the mexican experience 2
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (2)
  • Improve Accountability

Accountability mechanisms can improve school quality

Accountability mechanisms that put people at the center of service provision can go a long way in making services work and improving outcomes

Flexible and wide-ranging accountability mechanisms could encompass various types of services

To improve quality, efforts are needed to move decision-making to the school level, thus increasing school autonomy

assessment and accountability the mexican experience 3
Assessment and AccountabilityThe Mexican Experience (3)
  • Continue learning from the assessment

Assessment testing can be used to inform policy decisions.

Analysis of assessments can foster public and civil society involvement in education reform.

However, governments must be proactive in encouraging public debate using assessment results.

Expand coverage of the national assessments.

National and international assessments could be used to inform school reform process

assessment and accountability using early grade reading egr
Assessment and AccountabilityUsing Early Grade Reading (EGR)
  • Some start to use it to monitor reading but also to increase involvement of parents and other stakeholders (an accountability mechanism). It is not an alternative to assessment systems. Let’s see some pros and cons.
where are the countries
Where are the countries?
  • Chile, Grade 1:
    • “We expect children to read fluently and with comprehension. This means that they should be able to:
    • read, fast enough not to impede comprehension, stories of about 200 words;
    • identify the type of text read;
    • comprehend literal meaning; and
    • make simple inferences.” (Paraphrase.)
  • This is measurable, or can lead to something measurable
  • Peru, Haiti, Honduras
are there any results from egr
Are there any results (from EGR)?
  • To early to say. But in Peru there is some evidence that introducing EGR at the school level has a significant return. In six schools in five municipalities in Peru, after six months of introducing EGR the changes were on average 80% and the worst off the school (in terms of education quality) the biggest the impact.
  • Also in Peru the Government decided to use the results of an assessment system to evaluate its education policy starting with a baseline at the beginning of the Administration.
slide23
Some lessons for Assessment Policy
  • Assessment Unit must be committed with producing materials useful for teachers and with dissemination and use of results. (School reports with useful information about their performance and activities)
  • Technical legitimacy of tests and frameworks is crucial
  • Timely and accurate data to inform policymaking
  • Unit must be autonomous from political interests
  • Importance of detailed planning of actions and coherent implementation
slide24
Some lessons for Assessment Policy
  • You need an assessment strategy, not just to administrate tests… policymakers use the results of evaluation of existing interventions to inform design and implementation of policies
  • A "teacher-friendly" approach to assessment facilitates its use by teachers
  • Articulate dissemination of results with an effective in-service training program
  • Teachers need space and time to meet, study, discuss, try new things
slide25
Some lessons for Assessment Policy
  • Autonomy… with support. More autonomous schools can implement appropriate education policies
  • Accountability. A more accountable system will encourage more active participation by parents, teachers, and others, which is key to improving learning outcomes
  • Assessment. A system that is based in constant assessment and participation in international benchmarking exercises will improve cost-effectiveness
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