Five Common Graphs
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Five Common Graphs. Several graphs are commonly seen in ecology. for example. Linear progressions J - CURVES S - CURVES Climb and collapse Bell shaped curve. An arithmetic number sequence grows by repeated additions of like amounts. and produces a linear graph. Examples.

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Several graphs are commonly seen in ecology

for example

  • Linear progressions

  • J - CURVES

  • S - CURVES

  • Climb and collapse

  • Bell shaped curve


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An arithmetic number sequence grows by repeated additions of like amounts

and produces a linear graph

Examples

1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...

3...6...9...12...15...18...21

110...220...330...440...


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1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...

3...6...9...12...15...18...21

110...220...330...440...

Each of these

arithmetic progressions when graphed,produces a straight-line graph

Such number sequences are predictable and easy to understand


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An exponential progression

produces a classical J – CURVElike the one shown here


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J-curves are both powerful and deceptive

They result from number sequences that growby repeated multiplications by like amounts

Examples

1...2...4...8...16...32...64...128

1...3...9...27...81...243


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Most of the growth in an exponential sequence

occurs at the end of the sequence

Examples

  • A graph of a nuclear detonation

  • Populations undergoing ecological release

  • A graph of human population growth between 8000 BC and 2000 AD



An s curve is also known as a logistic growth pattern l.jpg
An S-curve is also known as a Logisticgrowth pattern

  • Takes into account environmental factors limiting growth.

  • Contains 5 stages.

  • Initial Growth/slow

  • Exponential Growth/fast

  • Slowing Growth

  • Slower Growth

  • Steady State, which will fluctuate moderately.


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During the early stages of a population’s growth,theS-CURVE follows an exponential pattern

As the population grows larger, competition and other limiting factors begin to slow its rate of growth


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Eventually,

birth rates and death rates become equal

and the population stabilizesnear the carrying capacity of its environment


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We often see

S– CURVES

in k-strategists

such as whales and gorillas

..... unless they undergo ecological release .....


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This graph depicts a population pattern known as

Climb and Collapse

Can you see why?


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The population shown here grew exponentially for many generations

This was eventually followed by a catastrophicdie-off over a relatively short span of time


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This graph shows the climb-and-collapse of a reindeer population

on St. Matthews Island, Alaska

In 1944, 29 reindeer were placed on the island


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Since the island had no competitors or predators population

The reindeer herd underwent

ecological release

(Definition?)


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By 1963, more than 6000 reindeer populationdamaged the vegetation needed to survive


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More than 99% of the herd died during the winter of 1963-1964

… only 42 individuals survived …





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Such data often involve producepatterns of variation within a population


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Example produce

Suppose we analyze all the oranges on a given tree for their vitamin Ccontent per gram


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Some will have a very high amount of vitamin C per gram produce

Others

will have very little

vitamin C

per gram

But most will have some average amount of vitamin C per gram


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producing a producebell-shaped curve when graphed


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C’s produce

B’s

D’s

A’s

Bell shape curves are what we often use in education when evaluating student work.

What’s fair about this? What’s not?


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