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Five Common Graphs. Several graphs are commonly seen in ecology. for example. Linear progressions J - CURVES S - CURVES Climb and collapse Bell shaped curve. An arithmetic number sequence grows by repeated additions of like amounts. and produces a linear graph. Examples.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Several graphs are commonly seen in ecology

for example

  • Linear progressions
  • J - CURVES
  • S - CURVES
  • Climb and collapse
  • Bell shaped curve
slide3

An arithmetic number sequence grows by repeated additions of like amounts

and produces a linear graph

Examples

1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...

3...6...9...12...15...18...21

110...220...330...440...

slide4

1...2...3...4...5...6...7...8...9...

3...6...9...12...15...18...21

110...220...330...440...

Each of these

arithmetic progressions when graphed,produces a straight-line graph

Such number sequences are predictable and easy to understand

slide5

An exponential progression

produces a classical J – CURVElike the one shown here

slide6

J-curves are both powerful and deceptive

They result from number sequences that growby repeated multiplications by like amounts

Examples

1...2...4...8...16...32...64...128

1...3...9...27...81...243

slide7

Most of the growth in an exponential sequence

occurs at the end of the sequence

Examples

  • A graph of a nuclear detonation
  • Populations undergoing ecological release
  • A graph of human population growth between 8000 BC and 2000 AD
an s curve is also known as a logistic growth pattern
An S-curve is also known as a Logisticgrowth pattern
  • Takes into account environmental factors limiting growth.
  • Contains 5 stages.
  • Initial Growth/slow
  • Exponential Growth/fast
  • Slowing Growth
  • Slower Growth
  • Steady State, which will fluctuate moderately.
slide10

During the early stages of a population’s growth,theS-CURVE follows an exponential pattern

As the population grows larger, competition and other limiting factors begin to slow its rate of growth

slide11

Eventually,

birth rates and death rates become equal

and the population stabilizesnear the carrying capacity of its environment

slide12

We often see

S– CURVES

in k-strategists

such as whales and gorillas

..... unless they undergo ecological release .....

slide13

This graph depicts a population pattern known as

Climb and Collapse

Can you see why?

slide14

The population shown here grew exponentially for many generations

This was eventually followed by a catastrophicdie-off over a relatively short span of time

slide15

This graph shows the climb-and-collapse of a reindeer population

on St. Matthews Island, Alaska

In 1944, 29 reindeer were placed on the island

slide16

Since the island had no competitors or predators

The reindeer herd underwent

ecological release

(Definition?)

slide18

More than 99% of the herd died during the winter of 1963-1964

… only 42 individuals survived …

slide23

Example

Suppose we analyze all the oranges on a given tree for their vitamin Ccontent per gram

slide24

Some will have a very high amount of vitamin C per gram

Others

will have very little

vitamin C

per gram

But most will have some average amount of vitamin C per gram

slide26

C’s

B’s

D’s

A’s

Bell shape curves are what we often use in education when evaluating student work.

What’s fair about this? What’s not?