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“Leipzig” Conservatives – retain “classical” traits, forms Adhere to what the “Classics” gave us Symphonies, concertos, chamber music, etc. Mendelssohn, R & C Schumann, Brahms, etc. “Weimar” Radicals - “New German School” - “ Zukunftsmusik ” B gives license to go beyond the rules

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two responses to beethoven
“Leipzig”

Conservatives – retain “classical” traits, forms

Adhere to what the “Classics” gave us

Symphonies, concertos, chamber music, etc.

Mendelssohn, R & C Schumann, Brahms, etc.

“Weimar”

Radicals- “New German School”- “Zukunftsmusik”

B gives license to go beyond the rules

Program Music, Operas & Music Dramas, etc.

Liszt, Wagner, Berlioz, etc.

Two Responses to Beethoven
franz liszt 1811 1886
Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
  • Greatest pianist of the era- tours Europe for decade- invents solo recital, etc.
  • Court musician at Weimar- composer, conductor, teacher, writer, etc.
  • Friend & ally of Wagner
  • Invents “Symphonic Poem”- programmatic works- unique forms
  • “Thematic Transformation”
les pr ludes
Les Préludes
  • Symphonic Poem No. 3 (c. 1844 - 1856)
  • Premiere: 23 Feb 1854, Weimar Court Theater- 1st public work called “symphonic poem”
  • Uncertain origins- Overture to Les Quatre Élémens (“The Four Elements”) by Joseph Autran (1844-45)- revised as one-movement orchestral work- Ode from Alphonse de Lamartine’s Nouvelles Méditations Poétiques added
  • Title: “Les Préludes (d’après Lamartine)” w/ Lamartine’s ode as preface [program]
  • Published score (1856) and parts (1865)
les pr ludes 2 lamartine s ode
Les Préludes (2) [Lamartine’s Ode]
  • “What else is our life but a series of preludes to that unknown Hymn, the first and solemn note of which is intoned by Death? - Love is the glowing dawn of all existence; but what is the fate where the first delights of happiness are not interrupted by some storm, the mortal blast of which dissipates its fine illusions, the fatal lightening of which consumes its altar; and where in the cruelly wounded soul which, on issuing from one of these tempests, does not endeavour to rest his recollection in the calm serenity of life in the fields? Nevertheless man hardly gives himself up for long to the enjoyment of the beneficent stillness which at first he has shared in Nature's bosom, and when "the trumpet sounds the alarm", he hastens, to the dangerous post, whatever the war may be, which calls him to its ranks, in order at last to recover in the combat full consciousness of himself and entire possession of his energy.”
les pr ludes 3
Les Préludes (3)
  • Slow intro – 3 note motive & extension (a, b)
  • Exposition- Theme 1 (brass) C major (c) [2:20]- varied/trans. (vlns, horns etc.) (d) [3:20]- Theme 2 (horns) E major (e) [4:40]
  • Developmental (f, g, h) [7:08]
  • Recapitulation- Theme 2 (vlns) C major (e) [11:58]- Fanfare (brass) C major (i) [13: 55]- Theme 1 (brass) C major (c) [15:25]
  • NB. timings may vary on YouTube
les pr ludes6
Les Préludes
  • ExamplesYouTube - Franz Liszt - Les Préludes (1/2)YouTube - Franz Liszt - Les Préludes (2/2)
  • “Les Preludes” as used in 1930s movie serialYouTube - Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe: Chapter Four, Part 1 of 2
opera in the 19 th century
Opera in the 19th Century
  • Distinct national styles reflect regional aesthetics- more than just language
  • Italy (opera in every town)- “opera industry” creates “product” efficiently- bel canto (beautiful singing)
  • France (Paris is center of opera world)- Grand opera – spectacle - Opéra comique – lighter, includes spoken dialogue
  • Germany (very “Romantic” style)- emphasis on folklore, legends, mythic- Wagner and music drama – remakes opera
opera in the 19 th century8
Opera in the 19th Century
  • Distinct national styles reflect regional aesthetics- more than just language
  • Italy (opera in every town)- “opera industry” creates “product” efficiently- bel canto (beautiful singing)
  • France (Paris is center of opera world)- Grand opera – spectacle - Opéra comique – lighter, includes spoken dialogue
  • Germany (very “Romantic” style)- emphasis on folklore, legends, mythic- Wagner and music drama – remakes opera
italy birthplace of opera
Italy (birthplace of opera)
  • Traditional styles (18th C)
  • Only important genre for Italians in 19th C
  • Opera houses in every city
  • “opera industry”- rapid production- standardized forms, etc.
  • Emphasis on the voice- “bel canto” (beautiful singing)

La Scala - Milan

La Scala – Interior of the House

gioachino rossini 1792 1868
Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
  • The master of comic opera
  • Incredibly facile composer- 32 operas in 12 (!) years
  • Most successful ($$$) and famous composer in Europe
  • Guillaume Tell (Paris, 1829), then retires for nearly 40 years
  • Potpourri Overture:
  • “Rossini Crescendo”- YouTube - Rossini La Gazza Ladra Overture Abbado Vienna 1991 (crescendo starts c. 6:50, to end)
rossini una voce poco fa from il barbiere di siviglia i 7 nawm 125
Rossini, “Una voce poco fa” from Il barbiere di Siviglia I:7 (NAWM 125)
  • Barber of Seville (premiered Rome, 1816)
  • “Entrance aria” for Rosina – cavatina(“cavare” = to carve out)
  • Standard pattern for “scenes” (scena) [see Hanning, 472-3]- orchestral introduction- cantabile (slower) section [not in this ex.]- shift in mood (note change in text)- cabaletta (faster concluding section)
  • Beautiful melody w/ virtuoso (ornamented) singing
  • “Rossini crescendo” (more than volume)
slide12
Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)- 70 operas in 30 years- better at comic style - “somewhat” crude, basic style- more emphasis on voice than character- Lucia da Lammermoor (1835), Act II YouTube - Sutherland - Gedda - Gobbi - Lucia Sextet - plus interview
  • Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)- only 10 serious operas- more refined style- more expressive vocal lines- demanding vocal technique- more subtle harmonic coloring- Norma (1831) “Casta Diva”YouTube - Angela Gheorghiu-Casta Diva..ah bello(Norma, Bellini);
giuseppe verdi 1813 1901
Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
  • The dominant Italian opera composer (1850-1900)
  • 28 operas (& revisions)- no radical experiments- refines & improves the style
  • Drama in “human terms”- great conflicts (background)- vivid characters- lots of action, forward motion- improbable situations, coincidences
  • Material from popular authors- Byron, Hugo, Dumas, etc.- Shakespeare
giuseppe verdi 2 career
Giuseppe Verdi (2) [career]
  • Earliest period(apprenticeship)- “years in the galley” (GV letter)- development of choral forces- learns to build scenes using all resources (orch, chorus, solo voices)- Ex. Nabucco (Chorus of Slaves: “Va pensiero”) YouTube - NABUCCO´S "VA PENSIERO SULL´ALI DORATE"
  • Middle period(1850s – 70s)- attention to “psychological”- more flexible vocal lines- “big tune” (for balconies)- Ex. Il Trovatore (Anvil Chorus) YouTube - ANVIL CHORUS FROM "IL TROVATORE" AT THE MET
giuseppe verdi 3 career
Giuseppe Verdi (3) [career]
  • “Late Verdi” (1887-93)- follows Aida by 16 years- Otello (1887)- Falstaff (1893)- more continuous musical texture- flexible use of recitative, arioso, aria, duets, etc.- reminiscence motives(previously heard motives to remind and connect drama)
william tell overture updated
William Tell Overture Updated
  • YouTube - The Mom Song with lyrics
  • YouTube - Mom Song Kid's Response to William Tell's Overture with Lyrics
  • YouTube - William Tell Overture on the Face
  • YouTube - Vadrum Meets William Tell (Drum Video)