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SEVERE WEATHER. Cloud classification. High clouds (above 6km). Cirrocumulus clouds – puffy, high clouds. Cirrus – thin, wispy. Cirrostratus – cover the sky. Can give us solar and lunar halos. Halo around the sun through a cirrostratus cloud. Mid-level clouds (1.8 to 6 km)

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Cloud classification

High clouds (above 6km)

Cirrocumulus clouds – puffy, high clouds

Cirrus – thin, wispy

Cirrostratus – cover the sky. Can give us solar and lunar halos.

slide4

Mid-level clouds (1.8 to 6 km)

Have prefix alto-

No halo

Altocumulus clouds

Altostratusclouds

slide5

Low-level clouds (ground level to 1.8km)

Stratus clouds – low to ground, blanket-like

Nimbostratus – low clouds that accompany precipitation

Stratocumulus – low puffy clouds

slide6

Clouds with vertical development

Cumulus clouds

Cumulonimbus clouds - thunderstorms

slide8

Unusual cloud shapes

Lenticular altocumulus

Mammatus clouds

slide10

Fog – Moist air is cooled and condenses.

Advection fog – moist air moves over a cool surface.

Radiation fog – radiative heat loss cools the ground. Nearby air is cooled, leading to condensation. Morning fog is often radiation fog.

fig 12 6
Fig. 12.6

Billion-dollar climate and weather disasters, 1980-2005

fig 12 8
Fig. 12.8

DROUGHT

Stratford, TX in 1935

fig 12 7
Fig. 12.7

Hot, dry conditions caused by high pressure ridge

fig 12 9
Fig. 12.9

Drought map of the United States in 1934 – DUST BOWL

fig 12 10
Fig. 12.10

HEAT WAVE

Temps in Chicago, July 1995

fig 12 11
Fig. 12.11

Blue areas cooler than usual

10°C hotter than July 2001

European heat wave, July 2003

fig 12 12
Fig. 12.12

Mid-latitude cyclones

fig 12 15
Fig. 12.15

BLIZZARDS AND ICE STORMS

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Freezing rain – occurs when water freezes as soon as it touches an object rather than in the air

fig 12 19
Fig. 12.19

THUNDERSTORMS

fig 12 18
Fig. 12.18

Warm, buoyant air mass is rising

fig 12 20
Fig. 12.20

Early stage of thunderstorm growth.

Updrafts creating tall, moisture-rich clouds

fig 12 21
Fig. 12.21

A mature thunderstorm

Downdrafts creating wind and heavy rain.

table 12 7
Table 12.7

DERECHO – widespread, powerful straight-line winds. Can be as damaging as a small tornado.

fig 12 22
Fig. 12.22

Number of days with thunderstorms per year

fig 12 23
Fig. 12.23

Localized areas of high rainfall, central TX

fig 12 27
Fig. 12.27

Number of lightning deaths, 1959-2004

fig 12 28
Fig. 12.28

Number of lightning deaths by month

1959-1980

slide44

Lightning isdeadly!

  • Lightning Safety
  • Take shelter inside a building.
  • Do not use a land-line phone or electrical equipment like computers, etc.
  • Stay away as much as possible from anything that has pipes (sinks, bathtubs, showers, toilets).
  • DO NOT take shelter under a tree or the overhang of a tall building. Go inside.
  • If you’re on a lake, get to shore and find shelter immediately.
fig 12 32
Fig. 12.32

TORNADOES

Tornado near Dimmitt, TX 1995

fig 12 40
Fig. 12.40

Super outbreak of tornadoes

April 3-4, 1974

watches and warnings
Watches and Warnings

WATCH means conditions are right for weather to occur (thunderstorm, tornado, flood, etc). Be on the lookout.

WARNING means it is happening now, and you need to take shelter immediately.

tornado safety
Tornado Safety

If possible, get to an underground storm shelter.

Alternate shelter: small interior room on 1st floor with no windows (closet or bathroom)

If caught outside, get low in a ditch

Never stay in a mobile home.

Cars are nearly as dangerous as mobile homes.