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Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:. Lessons learned about the importance and effectiveness of adopting and following modern building codes Tim Reinhold Institute for Business & Home Safety. Design Standards for Manufactured Housing. Pre- 1976 No standards, lots of singlewides

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protecting infrastructure from hurricanes

Protecting infrastructure from hurricanes:

Lessons learned about the importance and effectiveness of adopting and following modern building codes

Tim Reinhold

Institute for Business & Home Safety

design standards for manufactured housing
Design Standards for Manufactured Housing
  • Pre- 1976
    • No standards, lots of singlewides
    • Generally very poor performance
  • 1976-1994
    • HUD Code, more doublewides
    • Two design levels – not tied to modern wind std.
    • Better performance but lots of damage
  • Post 1994
    • Wind zones 1-3
    • ASCE 7-88 loads and wind map
    • Clearly superior performance
windborne debris
Windborne Debris

Primary Sources:

  • Roofing Materials
  • Siding Materials
  • Vegetative Debris
  • Structural Components
  • Unsecured Items (Patio Furniture, Potted Plants, lawn ornaments, etc.)
punta gorda city hall annex
Punta Gorda City Hall & Annex
  • Mitigation Success
    • Annex in use
    • City Hall gutted
aggregate losses for charlotte county and punta gorda
Aggregate Losses for Charlotte County and Punta Gorda
  • All Building Permits: $1.8 Billion
  • Residential Garage Doors: $2.6 Million
  • Shingle Roofs: $114 Million
  • Tile Roofs: $87 Million
  • Residential Cages: $16 Million
roof covering failures tile
Roof Covering Failures - Tile

Tile Roof Damage

  • Tile insufficiently attached to roof deck:
continuing problems garage door failures
Continuing Problems: Garage Door Failures
  • Failed primarily due to lack of reinforcement and track bracing for design pressures
  • Some were also damaged by windborne debris
continuing problems gable ends
Continuing Problems: Gable Ends
  • Gable End Failures
    • Sheathing loss
    • Un-braced gables
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Buildings built under the latest codes where enforcement was good – generally performed well structurally (some exceptions)
  • Keys are:
    • Good up to date code
    • Uniform and thorough enforcement
    • Builders and subs who understand and appreciate the risks
    • Special inspections for key functions
benefit cost studies for building codes
Benefit-Cost Studies for Building Codes
  • Texas A&M Study for TDI Code
    • For individual provisions large variability
    • For system of provisions B-C ~ 4 to 7
  • Seismic Code Study for Utah and LA
    • B-C of 4.3 for Utah
    • B-C of 6 to 16 for LA
recommendations
Recommendations
  • Appropriate funds for National Windstorm Loss Reduction Program authorized last year
  • Increase support for NOAA / FEMA in wind field modeling
  • Increase support for NOAA in hardening and backing up ASOS stations
  • Add incentives for code adoption and enforcement
  • Add incentives for mitigation