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Global Economy and Global Warming. Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event) UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) February 22, 2007.

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global economy and global warming

Global Economy and Global Warming

Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol

Professor Electrical and Computer Engineering

CLiMMATe Lab Director (Cloud Microwave Measurements of ATmospheric Event)

UPRM-PI for the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA)

February 22, 2007

this presentation can be found at http ece uprm edu pol outreach
This presentation can be found at:

global economy
Global Economy

What’s the advantage of enhancing global economy?





  • Problem:
    • Global Economy
    • Global Warming


    • individuals,
    • industry-governments
economic divide
Economic Divide

World $


*Sachs, 2005


gnp per capita
GNP per capita

purchasing power parity

poverty trap clinical economics
Poverty Trap – Clinical Economics
  • Physical Geography
    • Arid conditions, high transport cost, isolation, mountain ranges, lack of navigable rivers, disease, climate
  • Cultural Barriers
    • Role of women, ethic minorities, education
  • Geopolitics: war, trade barriers, sanctions, debt
  • Lack of technology
  • Closed market

=>Countries too poor to develop

=>Need $ to hop onto 1st step of economic ladder

why did england flourished
Why did England flourished?
  • Open market
  • Island- used to navigation, trading
  • Technology- coal, steam engine
  • Weather – not prompt for disease, mosquitoes
  • Education
  • Basic needs: Nutrition, Health, Water
  • Infrastructure
china india
China & India

Certain conditions helped these 2 countries flourish economically. Usually Green Revolution follows technological growth.

  • India: invested in education; Indian Institutes of Technology, now paying off; now a world IT leader.
    • Was an English colony until 1947.
    • Began economic reforms in 1991 (Open Market)
china india11
China & India…
  • China: growing economic rate (9%!) in the World, after it opened to global trading.
    • Ancient civilization. Past technology leader, until 1400’s.
    • 1434 Ming emperor closes international trade, dismantled world’s largest fleet of ocean vessels.
    • Japan invasion 1937. Mao Tse-tung 1949- 1976.
    • Market reforms began 1978.

***Global Warming: coal , oil…

why is africa an exception
Why is Africa an exception?

Too much Corruption

Laziness of people

+Sexually active: AIDS

Bad land-use

---------------------------------Myth#1: Truth: Less corrupted

----------------------------Myth#2Truth: Backbreaking labor

----------------------------------Myth#3Truth: Equal or less

-----------------------Myth#4Truth: Global warming

lake chad
Lake Chad
  • Was the 6th largest lake in the World!
  • A study by U. Wisconsin-Madison and NASA's EOS, the lake is now 1/20th of the size it was 35 years ago.
  • W. Africa (Chad, Niger, Nigeria, & Cameroon), the region has suffered from an increasingly dry climate, experiencing decline in rain since early 1960s.

We are causing Extreme poverty in Africa due to our emissions which accounts for 25% of all world emissions compared to Africa’s 3%.

why is africa an exception14
Why is Africa an exception?
  • Geography
    • Disease prompt weather: malaria
    • Vast regions with no navigable rivers
    • Sparsely populated
    • Lack of infrastructure: roads, bridges, etc.
    • Lack of health systems
  • Years of exploitation
  • Political reasons; frontiers set by Europeans,
  • Huge external debt
  • Global warming due to developed world emissions
we can banish extreme poverty
We can banish extreme poverty ,
  • “yet 8 million people die each year because they are too poor to survive.” , J.Sachs, The End of Poverty

With only $70/person/year for 5 years, we can help poor countries be self-sustained! ($0.21 daily)

    • Currently, U.S. gives ~$15/pp/yr.

World's governments committed to provide 0.7% of rich-countries' gross domestic product (GDP) to Official Development Assistance.

First pledged 35 years ago in a 1970 General Assembly Resolution, … has been affirmed many times over the years, including the 2002 Monterrey Consensus.

charities help provide the basics food medicines vaccines education shelter clean water
Charities help provide the basics: foodmedicinesvaccineseducation shelterclean water
extreme poverty
Extreme poverty

UN Millennium Project GOALS:


    • Half extreme poverty by 2015
    • Aims to end extreme poverty by 2025
  • What is extreme poverty?
  • Versus relative poverty?
mp goals
MP Goals:

Significant progress:1990 – 2002

  • Average overall incomes increased by ~ 21 percent.
  • The # of people in extreme poverty declined by an estimated 130 million.
  • Child mortality rates fell from 103 to 88 deaths per 1,000 live births a year.
  • Life expectancy rose from 63 to 65 years.
  • An additional 8% of the developing world's people received access to water.
  • And an additional 15% acquired access to improved sanitation services.
why bother
Why bother?

-----------------------------------------------------------Another Myth!

Less poor abroad means more poor here.

  • “Hard evidence has established strong linkages between extreme poverty abroad and the threats to national security.”
  • Better global economy provides new technologies developed in a diverse world. More products for everyone.

“Eliminating extreme poverty is a global responsibility that will have global benefits”

  • Money spent on war instead could go to help the poor be self-sustained, to new technologies to stop global warming.
  • This is the only way to achieve Global Peace
poverty a conflict generating factor
Poverty - a conflict generating factor

“There is a close relation between poverty and internal conflict.“ Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), 2001

global warming
Global Warming
  • Global Warming is NOT a theory; it’s a FACT.*
  • Scientific consensus: It’s caused by human activity, mainly carbon dioxide emissions.*
  • It’s happening now*
  • Some of its consequences are irreversible!*

*According to the most recent UN-IPCC 4th report published on Feb 2, 2007.

global warming28
Global Warming
  • World before Industrial revolution, 1800
    • CO2 level low <280ppm.
    • ~No fossil fuel emissions (oil, coal, gas).
  • Radiative transfer yielded thermodynamic global climate equilibrium for the last 100,000 years
    • Atmosphere like a blanket

Heat-trapping IR greenhouse gases.


A report in 2006 by economist Sir Nicholas Stern concludes that global warming could shrink the global economy by 20%!


CO2 in Atmosphere

Years: 1000 -2100

global average temperature years 1860 2000


Cold due to sulfuric emissions: (1940-1970) which caused lung cancer, asthma & acid rain

Clean Air Act

Global average temperatureYears: 1860-2000
  • Polar caps melt
  • Sea level rise
  • Extreme temperatures: BOTH cold and hot
  • Cyclones/tornadoes
  • Drought / floods
  • Disease
  • Agriculture losses
  • Water (potable) scarcity
  • Extinction of animal species, corals, vegetation
  • Worst case scenario: stop ocean conveyor belt

Puerto Rico

Dry Season

Puerto Rico

Wet Season

costa rica
Costa Rica

First official lost species due to Global warming:

golden toad

Female Male

  • 10 hottest years ever, occurred in the last 14 yrs.
  • Hottest of all time, 2006.
  • 2004 1st hurricane ever in the S. Altantic Ocean
  • 2005 highest # of hurricanes,
    • most intense, 6 Greek letters
  • 2005 Wilma strongest hurricane ever recorded AO


  • 2006 Monica strongest hurricane ever recorded
  • Luckily, this year, El Niño decreases # hurricanes
icebergs with caves broken food chain
Icebergs with caves = broken food chain

60% of krill population killed because of this.

Krill are small shrimp-like crustaceans zooplankton, food for baleen whales, mantas, whale sharks, seals, and a few seabird species

worst case scenario abrupt change ipcc intergovernmental panel on climate change
Worst case scenario: abrupt changeIPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)

Due to change in salinity, if Artic keeps melting, this current could stop, creating a small ice age in Europe and North America.

on top of this

On top of this…

New blooming economies want to live their own version of the “American Dream”.

Example: in China, the traditional bicycle lane was closed to lay way to an extra automobile lane. India is now also flourishing economically and greatly increasing their CO2 emissions.


Crecimiento Población Mundial














Tardó TODA la historia de la humanidad para llegar a 1,000 millones en 1800.

X mil millones

10,000 BC 5,000 BC Year 0 1000 2000

also political issues
Also Political Issues
  • Oil industry interests,
    • Lobbyists
  • Governments covering up scientific evidence
    • (e.g. NASA climatologist, Jim Hansen)
  • Real cost of Nuclear energy
    • versus cost of clean energy like solar or wind
    • Health hazards, radioactive waste deposit
potential solutions
Potential Solutions

Reduce CO2 emissions:

  • Reduce energy consumption
  • Alternative green power: solar, wind, biofuels,…
  • Reforestation
  • Increase fuel efficiency; e.g. fuel cell, hybrid cars

Scientific propositions:

  • CO2 sequestration
  • Inject sulfur in stratosphere
  • Distribute iron oxide to SA ocean

Emission trading- Kyoto Protocol:

  • Signed by 135 nations to reduce emissions.
  • Not signed by U.S. or Australia!, the 2 nations with the highest emissions.
economic advantage
Economic advantage
  • Advantage will go to countries that take the leadership to develop renewable energy technologies, green building construction codes, and energy conservation and efficiency.
example auto sales in u s 2006
Example: Auto Sales in U.S. 2006

eco urbana
Eco Urbana

Solar powered & rainwater filtration system.

the good news is

The Good News is…

We can make a difference…

we ve done it before ozone layer montreal protocol s ban on cfcs
We’ve done it before!: Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs
  • For years, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were the agents--contributing to the destruction of the Earth's ozone layer.
  • After the Montreal Protocol's ban on CFCs, slightly-more benign HCFCs replaced them..
ahorra salva el planeta
Ahorra $$$, Salva el planeta

Cada vez que utilizamos electricidad o gasolina, incluso agua, estamos enviando emisiones como CO2 a la atmósfera que la calientan aún más.


Ahorras $5 a $50 al mes si: apagas los enseres (o mejor aún desconéctelos) cuando no los estés usando.

Usa un “power strip” para conectar varios enseres y así los apaga todos a la vez.


Mito vs. Realidad: el prender y apagar enseres, los daña. FALSO! Eso ocurría hace 2 décadas. Desconecta y Ahorra!

luces fluorescentes compactas

AHORRAS $50 por bombilla durante la vida de la bombilla

  • Usan 75% menos electricidad.
  • Duran 10 veces más.
bater as recargables comparaci n costo 4 aa y 4 aaa
Baterías recargablesComparación Costo[4 AA y 4 AAA]


$850+ por cada 8 baterías recargables !!


qu compro
¿Qué compro?
  • Una estufa o secadora de gas te ahorra unos $25-$50 mensuales!
  • Tender la ropa al sol, ahorra aún más.
qu compro65
¿Qué compro?

Compra enseres que tengan un bajo uso de energía.


Puedesahorrar de $10- 60 mensuales por cada uno!!

reforestaci n
  • Siembra árboles
    • Bajan la temperatura del

hogar hasta 10 grados F!,

    • ¡Aumentar valor de propiedad!
    • Reducen emisiones de CO2

*El Fideicomiso te regala 200 árboles gratis!

  • Apágala si no la vas a usar en 1.5 horas o más.
  • NO dejes el “adapter” conectado!!!
Apaga también la impresora y bocinas si no las estás usando.
  • Desconéctalas por las noches.
  • ¡No dejes el cargador del celular conectado si no lo estás usando!
  • Usa de 70-95% de la energía.
qu compro70
¿Qué compro?

Un calentador solar

  • Ahorra $40-$100 mensual
  • Dura 30+ años!
  • Usa abanicos en vez de aires acondicionados en noches frescas.
    • Puedes ahorrar $70-$100 mensualmente!
carros h bridos
Carros Híbridos

Ahorras $6,000 en 5 años y $12,000 en 10 años!

Toma en cuenta gastos inicial y gastos debido a eficiencia de combustible del auto de gasolina versus auto híbrido.

qu compro73
¿Qué compro?
  • Una piscina de fibra de vidrio (fiberglass) gasta 1/3 de la energía que una piscina de concreto
  • Además la de fibra tiene menos filtraciones de agua.

Escoge piscina de fibra de vidrio

other things to do save with no initial cost
Other Things to Do– Save $ with NO initial cost
  • Turn off water faucet,
    • shower not baths, flow
    • change shower head
  • Clean air-conditioning filters
  • Tune-up car, keep balanced, Accelerate minimum only


Turn down Water heater, and air conditioner
    • Use sheets instead of blankets
  • Use cold water for washing cloths!
    • Hang clothes if possible
  • Use dishwasher only when full
    • Wash by hand if possible
Eating habits:
    • Eat less meat (less methane);
    • Eat local products
  • Car pooling, walking or biking
  • Avoid sanitary dishes/napkins
    • Both styrofoam or paper
Buy products with least packaging
    • Large family packs
    • Gift bags instead of wrapping
    • Water bottles! 

*Packaging and clean water production needs a lot of energy and releases tons of CO2 in the atmosphere annually.

Be a wise consumer
    • Buy less
    • Give away things you not longer use.

    • (plastic, paper, cardboard, cans, glass)
  • Email your senators, government officials:
    • Sign petition at
    • Sign petition at
to do
To Do…

Transportation accounts for 67% of oil used!

  • Use public transportation
  • Eat organic products (better health, less Br)
  • Consider wind or solar power
  • Use silicone or dark baking pans: Bake T-25oF
  • Use reusable plastic or cloth coffee filter

Green means it’s also good for your HEALTH.

book references
Book References:
  • The End of Poverty by Jeffrey Sachs
  • Weather Makers by Tim Flannery
  • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
  • The World is Flat by Thomas Friedman
  • Global Warming by Chris Spence
  • Pathologies of Power, Paul Farmer
  • Mini Atlas of Global Development, The World Bank
  • Economics of Climate Change, Sir Nick Stern
web references
Web References…
  • FUN!! (PC games)