Ethiopia Anthony Pratt, Sarah Erkson, and Annie Kennedy
General Facts • Population = 85,237,338 • Life expectancy at birth = ~55 years old • Literacy Rate • Male: 50.3% • Female: 35.1%
History • Oldest Human Settlement • Lucy(Australopithecus) was discovered 1974 in Awash Valley, Ethiopia • Estimated to live 3.2 million years ago • Human evolution
History (continued) • Zemene Mesafint • 1755 - 1855 • Complete isolation and emperors started to act like figureheads • Modernization and recentralizing power to the Emperor • Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs again • "Age of Princes“ • THEN connected with Europe
Geography • Slightly less than twice the size of Texas • Landlocked (no coastlines) • Located in the north eastern part of Africa, also called the “Horn of Africa” • Total area: 1,127,127km , 7,444 of that being water bodies. • A Blend of massive highlands, highly rugged terrain , and valleys divided the by Great Rift Valley • Bordering Countries: Sudan, Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, and Djibouti • Climate: Mostly tropical monsoon, moderate temperate, with the average temperature rarely exceeding 68 F.
Geography (Continued) Natural Resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower Current Environmental Issues: Deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, water shortages, intensive farming and poor management.
The Great Rift Valley A large split in the landscape from two tectonic plates separating Large complex divergent plate boundary on the Eastern side of Africa. Total distance of 3,000 km. Remarkable region of volcanic lakes, with a famous collection of birds.
Blue Nile Falls, Tis Iset Ethiopia http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/africa/ethiopia/map_of_ethiopia.jpg
Economy GDP(official exchange rate)- 25.08 billion (2008 est.) GDP per capita- $800 (2008 est.)
Natural Resources/Industry Natural resources- small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, natural gas, hydropower. Industries- food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, cement.
Poverty in Ethiopia http://indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?c=et&v=69 http://library.thinkquest.org/05aug/01259/statistics_on_ethiopian_poverty.htm
Ethiopia’s Trade Imports- food and live animals, petroleum, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles. Exports- coffee, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds.
Trade Relations • Imports Exports • Saudi Arabia 17% -Germany 8.2% • China 15.9% -Saudi Arabia 7% • India 7.8% -U.S 6.9% • Italy 5.1% -China 6.5% -Italy 6.5%
Religion • The two major religions are Christianity and Islam. • Most Muslims are Sunnis, the largest sect of Islam. • Christianity is more predominant in the north where 62% of the people are Christian. • Ethiopia is well known for its distinctive Christian tradition • Muslim is more predominant in the South at about 34%
Christianity They do not eat meat and dairy products on fasting days, Wednesdays and Fridays. Church is held daily in all Tewahedo Churches from early morning to three o’clock PM. Only one meal can be eaten each day of fasting, usually occurring after three o’clock Christmas falls on December 29,and New Years fall on September 11(the first month of the year is September and the last is Pagumiene which comes after August.
Government • 1970’s – illegal political groups formed • Groups hold elections 1970-present • Federal Parliamentary Republic • Prime Minister • Executive Power
Ethnic Groups • Oromo (Galla) 40% • Southern half of nation • Amhara and Tigrean 32% • Political • Sidamo 9% • Southern foothills and savanna • Shankella 6% • Western frontier
Ethiopian Music • Modal System • Pentatonic • Long intervals between notes • Some well known musicians include Teddy Afro, Gigi, Mahmoud Ahmed, etc.
Current Events • June 2, 2008 • UNICEF estimates 1260,000 children are in need of care for sever malnutrition. • Harvest fails increased amount of malnutrition in children • The World Food Program estimates that 147 million dollars will be necessary to feed the kids in Ethiopia.
Current Affairs in Ethiopia Recently, 35 Ethiopians were arrested for allegedly plotting to overthrow the Ethiopian government. The government claims that these people were all part of an opposition group called Ginbot Seven. This opposition group was founded by the exiled mayor of Addis Abba, Berhanu Nega. After the most recent Ethiopian election (2005), Nega was tried for treason and sentenced to life in prison before being pardoned and released. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8035430.stm
CONNECTIONS • Gender Roles Kite Runner & A Thousand Splendid Suns • Government Issues Taliban like groups • Strict Religious Rules Iraq & Middle East
Bibliography • "Country Profile:Ethiopia." BBC News 04 15 2009 Web.3 Jun 2009. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1072164.stm>. • "Ethiopia." CIA-The World Factbook. Web.3 Jun 2009. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html>. • "Ethiopia."The Volume Library. 3rd. 2001. Print. • "Ethiopia." Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations. 12th ed. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007. Reproduced in History Resource Center. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/>. • "Ethiopian Treasures." 06 01 2009 Web.3 Jun 2009. <http://www.ethiopiantreasures.toucansurf.com/pages/calendar.htm>.