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Blood pressure. Outline for today’s class. Question on Blood Pressure – review constants Cuff-with variety of methods to detect blood flow Errors in measurements- Bernoulli Tonography Solid state sensors Other pressure sensors 2 nd order model of catheter Statham / Millar transducers.

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outline for today s class
Outline for today’s class
  • Question on Blood Pressure – review constants
  • Cuff-with variety of methods to detect blood flow
  • Errors in measurements- Bernoulli
  • Tonography
  • Solid state sensors
  • Other pressure sensors
  • 2nd order model of catheter
  • Statham / Millar transducers
blood pressure basics
Blood Pressure Basics
  • Definition Pressure = Force/Area
    • At 0 deg C and standard gravity 981 cm/sec2
    • Corrected for atmospheric changes
  • Units

1 torr

=1 mm Hg

=1328 dynes/cm2

=13.6 mm H20

=13.1 mm saline

=12.9 mm blood

blood pressure questions
Blood pressure questions
  • Where is the highest blood pressure in the body?
  • Where is the lowest blood pressure?
  • What is the minimum pressure needed to survive?
  • Why is your heart located in the chest?
  • How does a giraffe pump blood to it’s head?
  • What is your blood pressure in Denver compared to sea level?
  • Where are the pressure sensors in your body?
blood pressure questions cont
Blood Pressure questions cont
  • How is blood pressure regulated?
  • What is the relationship between heart rate and body size?
  • What is the relationship between heart rate and respiration?
  • How do you measure blood pressure in the capillaries?
  • What is your blood pressure in Denver compared to sea level?
  • Does blood pressure have to be pulsitile?
  • Does the pulse reach all the body at once?
  • What is origin of Korotkoff sounds?
sources of error velocity effect
Sources of Error-velocity effect

Total Energy= Pressure energy + velocity energy + height energy

E = Ps + Mgh +(1/2)mv2

Where: Ps = Static Pressure

M= mass g=gravitational accelleration V=velocity

bernoulli effect
Bernoulli effect

In this example of a fluid flowing initially in a large cylinder and then flowing in a small cylinder before returning to the large cylinder, note that the velocity in the middle must increase. Since the Total Energy must be the same, the increased velocity means more kinetic energy, the resulting static pressure must be less

other 2 nd order systems
Other 2nd order systems

Mechanical systems

Body motion

Fluid systems

Transducer sensors

Oxygen diffusion models

Feedback model elements

statham transducer
Statham Transducer

Dangers of Air Bubble

-loss of frequency fidelity

-air bubble entering blood

-Possible stokes or ministrokes

project suggestions
Project Suggestions
  • OR Open heart equipment – pumps
  • Anesthesia console
  • Pacemakers
  • Cardiac defribulators
  • Ventilator – artificial respirators
  • New born cribs
  • Smart beds
  • Sound level monitors
  • Audiology testing machines
  • Kidney dialysis equipment
project suggestions27
Project suggestions
  • Blood testing devices
  • Blood gas measurement devices
  • Robots used in surgery
  • Telemedicine
  • Devices in Emergency Vehicles
  • Devices in helicopters
  • Drug administration devices
  • Hospital computer systems
  • OR monitors
  • Blood pressure measurement instruments
project suggestions28
Project suggestions
  • Liver dialysis devices
  • Emergency Room devices
  • Stethoscopes – electronic and plain
  • Imaging devices – MRI, SPECT, CT, PET
  • Ultrasound devices
  • Implantable joints, bones, teeth
  • Artificial hearts, muscles
  • Devices for the blind, deaf, dumb, no smell, etc
  • Scooters, wheelchairs
  • Medical equipment on the space shuttle
project suggestions29
Project suggestions
  • Biomedical devices for animals
  • Biomedical transmitters
  • Eye diagnostics devices
  • Neuro-implants – EEG analysis
  • Devices used or needed in poor countries
  • Ancient biomedical devices
  • Acupuncture, electrical stimulators
  • Artificial skin, blood, tendons
  • Diabetes devices – meters, auto infusion
  • Lie detectors
  • Software to assist diagnosis and treatment
project suggestions30
Project suggestions
  • Exercise machine and their efficacy
  • Glues used in the body and teeth
  • Electronic nose
  • Devices used in delivery rooms
  • New baby respiration monitors
  • Artificial implantable lenses for the eye
  • Retinal and brain implants for artificial vision
  • Heart valves, artificial arteries, stents
  • Medical records – voice input
  • DNA testing, decoding devices