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8. Commonality. II. Organism. From Viruses to Genetic Engineering. 1918 Spanish Flu. Photo Credit: Cynthia Goldsmith . Influenza Virus. RNA Virus 8 RNA pieces. Spanish Flu epidemic 1918 – 1920: 20 -100 million deaths worldwide Asian flu 1957-1958: 1- 4 million deaths worldwide

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8 commonality

8. Commonality

II. Organism

From Viruses to Genetic Engineering

influenza virus

Photo Credit: Cynthia Goldsmith

Influenza Virus
  • RNA Virus
    • 8 RNA pieces
    • Spanish Flu epidemic 1918 – 1920: 20 -100 million deaths worldwide
  • Asian flu 1957-1958: 1- 4 million deaths worldwide
  • United States: 20,000 deaths annually (National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Disease)
slide4

Chicken pox

Phage

HIV

Virus

Life? Virus

Complex

Organized

Utilize energy

Growth

Reproduce

Evolve

Yes

Yes

No: lack ability to utilize energy

Yes

No: must use living cell

Yes

Non-living particle

slide6

Recognizing Invaders

  • Antigens: proteins that your body recognizes as foreign (surface)
  • Two primary antigens in flu virus:
  • Hemagglutinin (H)
    • Attachment
  • Neuraminidase (N)
    • Release and penetration
  • Antibodies: proteins produced by your immune system to destroy antigens
antigenic drift
Antigenic Drift

Mutation

Genetic change (random mistakes in copying)

Minor annual changes in antigens

Flu:

H antigen

N antigen

Flu shots: only effective for predicted strains

antigen shift
Antigen Shift

Gene mixing and recombination

Species specificity

Human

Swine

Avian (Avian Flu H5 N1)

  • Strain that can
  • be capable of infecting humans (bird strain cannot)
  • become airborne (bird strain is not)
slide12

Bird Flu?

Birds: virus infects gut, transmitted in contact with feces

Human: virus infect upper respiratory system, transmitted through cough

To be of human concern bird flu needs to acquire the ability to infect respiratory system (airborne)

Spanish Flu: mutation allowed this to happen

Asian flu H2N2 and Hong Kong flu H3N2 : pigs were infected by human and bird flu, allowed for mixing of genes

slide14

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/VL/GG/images/dna2.gif

DNA

Watson and Crick (Double helix)

1953 (1962 Nobel Prize)

Nucleotides

Phosphate + Sugar + Base

  • Bases
    • A = Adenine
    • T = Thymine
    • G = Guanine
    • C = Cytosine
    • G & C
    • A & T combos
making copies
Making copies

How does the information (DNA) get used?

Transcription

DNA  RNA

Translation

RNA  Protein

transcription19
Transcription

DNA  RNA

Intermediate step before proteins are made

3 types of RNA created from genes on DNA

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

translation21
Translation

RNA male proteins

rRNA: make Ribosomes, carry out translation

mRNA: carry the copy of the DNA out of the nucleus

tRNA: amino Acid carriers, used to make proteins

enzymes
Enzymes

Proteins that affect biochemical functions

Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen, 1973

Restriction enzymes

Gene splicing: one organism to another

genetic engineering24
Genetic Engineering

Identification and Treatment of disease

Gene therapy: use a virus to insert a gene that is defective (Cystic Fibrosis)

Synthesize drug: Insulin

Patenting of organisms

Genetically modified organisms (GMO)

Plants (higher yield, resist insects)

Animals (spider silk in goat’s milk, BioSteel®)

slide27

Genetic Engineering

Foods dangerous?

Contain genes that are undisclosed or whose function is not fully understood

Hazardous to environment?

Effects on ecosystems

Reproduction in the field creating new strains

Outcompete native species

Escape

How far to go?

Fixing problems vs. Improving

Humans?

slide28

Summary

Commonality of Life

Same building blocks (RNA, DNA)

Same genetic code

Same biosynthetic processes

Same enzymes

Allows for genetic modifications