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Internet-Induced Constraints on Freedoms:The Implications for InnovationRoger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, CanberraVisiting Fellow, Dept of Computer Science, ANU Office for the Information EconomyCanberra, 9 July 2002

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Internet-Induced Constraints on Freedoms:The Implications for InnovationAgenda

  • The Digital Era

  • Its Impacts

    • Freedom of Access to Information

    • The New Dark Ages

  • The Process of Innovation

  • Constraints on Innovation

    • Access to Information

    • Copyright

    • Patent

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Information Objects ‘Then’ (early 1990s)

  • Tangible things (books, journal issues, photos, vinyl LPs, audio-tapes, microfilm, video-tapes, cassettes, diskettes, CD-ROMs, games-cartridges)

  • A person bought, rented, borrowed or visited a tangible thing, or gained admission to a location where it was reproduced, performed or played

  • The person had no need for a copyright licence

  • Replication was expensive, required infrastructure

  • Copies were accessible by one person at a time

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Information Objects in the Digital Era

  • convenient and inexpensive Creation

    desktop publishing packages, PC-based graphic design tools, animation, digital music generators

  • Conversion of existing materials

    scanners, OCR, digital cameras, digital audio-recording

  • near-costless Replication

    disk-to-disk copying, screen-grabbers, CD-burners as a consumer appliance

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Information Objects in the Digital Era

  • very rapid Transmission, unmeasurably low costs

    modem-to-modem transmission, CD-ROMs in the mail, emailed attachments, FTP-download, web-download

  • inexpensive and widespread Access

    PCs, PDAs, mobile phones, public kiosks, web-enabled TV in the workplace, the home, public kiosks, Internet cafes

  • computer-based Analysis of data

    data-matching, profiling, data-mining, pattern-recognition software

  • convenient Manipulation of data-objects

    word-processors, sound and image processing tools

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Defining Aphorisms of CyberspaceThe New Yorker5 July 1993

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Defining Aphorisms of Cyberspace

  • On the net, nobody knows you're a dog

  • There's no 'there' there

  • The Net treats censorship as damage and routes around it

  • National borders are just roadbumps on the information superhighway

  • National borders are not even roadbumps on the information superhighway

  • The street finds its own uses for things

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Defining Aphorisms of Cyberspace‘Information Wants To Be Free’‘Information Wants To Be Free To Go Anywhere’

“Information wants to be free

because it has become so cheap

to distribute, copy, and recombine”

“Information wants to be expensive

because it can be immeasurably valuable to the recipient”

“That tension will not go away”

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Cyberculture Ethos

  • Inter-Personal Communications

  • Internationalism

  • Egalitarianness

  • Openness

  • Participation

  • Mutual Service

  • Community

  • Freedoms

  • Gratis Services

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Cyberculture Economics

  • 'barn-raising' - Rheingold

    as distinct from 'horse-trading'

  • a 'cooking pot' - Ghosh

    "keeps boiling because people keep putting in things as they themselves, and others, take things out"

  • a ‘honey-pot’ - Clarke

    a culture of appropriation

    plagiarism as good not evil

    A culture of mutuality needs

    an economics of indirect and/or deferred exchange

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Alternative Economicsof Scarcity and of Abundance

  • Conventional, Neo-Classical Economics

  • The basis of value is Relative Scarcity

  • More Supply = More Competition = Lower Prices


  • Information Economics, Economics of Networks

  • The basis of value is Critical Mass

  • The more there are, the greater the value of each

    Iron Ore cf. Fax Machines

    Vinyl carrying Analogue Music cf. Digital Music

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Shareware (1983-)

Free Software Foundation (1985-)


Gnu Public Licence (GPL)

Open Source Institute (1998-)


BSD Unix







Open Office


The Open Source Movement

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The Open Content Movement

  • Xanadu ‘Transclusion’ (1965)

    • quote w/- copying, & with µpayments

  • Ted Nelson’s ‘Transcopyright’ (1997)

    • have a statutory right to re-publish by pointing, and pay (cents) for it

  • Open Content

    • Project Gutenberg

    • Open Directory Project -


    • Public Licences

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Gnutella, KaZaA, et al.

CD-quality digital sound

in files sized 1 MB/minute

a central catalogue of a distributed database, to facilitate sharing of MP3 files

a distributed catalogue of a distributed database, to facilitate sharing of (MP3?) files

Peer-to-Peer (P2P)e-Sharing / e-Trading

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The Digital RevolutionImpacts on Publishing

  • Increased Appropriation

  • Reduction in Payment Morality

  • Disintermediation

  • Collapse of Publishing

  • New Business Models

  • Re-Intermediation

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Disruptions in e-Publishing

  • Publisher-to-Consumer Sale and Distribution

    (dis-intermediation of wholesalers and retailers)

  • Originator-to-Consumer Sale and Distribution

    (dis-intermediation of publishers as well)

  • Consumer-to-Consumer Sale and Distribution

    (reduction in revenue flow to originators)

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Encyclopædia Britannica

  • in 1991, EB sold 400,000 printed copies @ $1,500 each

  • in 1993, CD-ROM competitors emerged

    esp. MS Encarta (Funk & Wagnall’s)

  • in 1997, EB sold 10,000 printed copies

  • since late 1997, EB has tried:

    • mailed optical disks @ $200, then $100

    • a web-site supported by advertising

    • a subscription-based web-site, with different terms for the B2C and B2B markets

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Alternative E-Publishing Business Models(‘Who pays what to whom, and why?)

  • revenue from the content-accessor / 'user-pays':

    • subscription fee for access for a period of time

    • fee for access ('pay-per-view')

    • shareware

  • revenue from a third party:

    • advertisers

    • sponsors

  • revenue from the copyright owner:

    • fee for publication ('vanity press')

    • fee for storage or access

  • revenue from a complementary activity

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Information Protectionism

  • censorship, esp. extreme pornography, incitement to violence, instruction in violence, neo-Nazi organisation, holocaust denial, racial vilification, sedition, activism

  • library intrusions, esp. compulsory filtering, access to borrowing records

  • reduction in FoI, esp. post-12 September

  • defamation, reputation-friendly and hostile to freedom of access to information, dramatically more threatening since the Internet

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Defamation on the Web

  • Mining magnate / football club owner / religio-cultural-philanthropy identity

  • Footprints in Melbourne, NY, Tel Aviv

  • Article prepared in Manhattan NY, published in Barron’s Digest (Dow Jones / WSJ), and made available on a web-server in NJ

  • Defamation suit in Victoria

  • Where did publication occur? Everywhere?!

  • Don’t criticise Mahathir or Goh Chok Tong, because their reach has been extended ...

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InventionTheconception of a new ideaExpression of a new idea in a prototype apparatusInnovation The application of knowledge to the manufacture and deployment a new kind of artefactThe articulation of an inventionThe adoption of a new product or process

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‘Tacit Knowledge’

informal and intangible

exists only in the mind of a particular person

‘knowing that’ cf. ‘knowing how to’

not readily communicated to others

‘Codified Knowledge’

expressed and recorded, in a more or less formal language (text, formulae, blueprints, procedure descriptions)

disembodied from individuals

communicable information

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Codified Knowledge

An omelette recipe

A combination of structured and unstructured text

Tacit Knowledge

The expertise to interpret the recipe,

to apply known techniques and tools to the activity,

to recognise omissions and exceptions,

to deliver a superb omelette every time,

to sense which variants will work and which won't,

and to deliver with style

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  • A combination of:

    • codified knowledge about artefacts, artefact manufacture, and artefact usage

    • tacit knowledge of many individuals

    • business processes within multiple organisations, into which are integrated codified and tacit knowledge

    • artefacts designed, manufactured and used by means of that codified and tacit knowledge

    • educational materials relating to artefacts, artefact design, production, use, maintenance

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Big-Bang Innovationcf. Cumulative Innovation

  • Genuine ‘breakthroughs’ do occur

  • But most Innovation is progressive:

    • Dependent on Interaction with others, and often on Contributions of others, including Users, Suppliers and Competitors

    • Process Innovation is often needed, in order to support Product Innovation

    • Step-wise Refinement results in Incremental Emergence or Conversion

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Conventional Economics

Information is an Output

Info is highly appropriable

Imitators contribute little, and are ‘free riders’

There are few natural protections for innovators

Innovators need a monopoly

Imitators must be punished

Information Economics

Information is also an Input

In many circumstances, not so

Many imitators add value, and hence contribute to cumulative innovation

There are many natural protections for innovators

Monopoly hinders innovation

Mere imitators must be punished, but investigation, enhancement and extension must be encouraged

Alternative Economics of Innovation

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Who Does Digital Media Threaten?

  • To those who do well under the old regime:

    • very few originators (authors, musicians)

    • mainly the major publishing houses

      (of books, journals, music, films)

  • Control Mechanisms wielded by publishers:

    • re I.P., ownership of vast catalogues of it

    • re originators, through terms of contract, and promotional budgets

    • re infringers, through nastygrams, lawsuits

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Manoeuvres by the Major Publishing Houses

  • Technological Protections for Digital Objects

  • Expansion of Copyright Scope, de facto

  • Embedment in Marketspace Mechanisms

    of Existing, Expanded and Imagined Rights

  • Lobbying for, and Enactment of, Laws:

    • Expansion of Copyright Scope, de juré

    • Criminalisation of hitherto civil law breaches

    • Enlistment of Law Enforcement Agencies

    • Transfer of Enforcement Costs to the public

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Technological Protections for I.P. ObjectsPassive Technologies – 1 of 2

  • object-protection, at various stages:

    • under the owner's control

    • in transit

    • under the licensee’s control

  • by means of:

    • encryption

    • device-specific encoding / crippling

      e.g. DVDs are region-specific, and film-publishers have state-enabled means of controlling sales of media and media-players

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Technological Protections for I.P. ObjectsPassive Technologies – 2 of 2

  • means of tracing rogue copies:

    • 'watermarking' technology

      (to uniquely identify the publication)

    • 'fingerprinting' technology

      (to uniquely identify the particular copy)

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Technological Protections for I.P. Objects Active Technologies – 1 of 2

  • notification to the licensee of their rights

    at the time that the object is accessed

  • licensee:

    • identification

    • identity authentication

  • disablement / destruction of the data object:

    • in the event of licence expiry or breach

    • if played on a ‘non-approved’ device

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Technological Protections for I.P. Objects Active Technologies – 2 of 2

  • enforcement mechanisms, client-side

    • prevention, e.g. preclude actions that breach permissions for rendering

    • recording of:

      • actions that exercise permissions

      • (attempts to) breach the licence, e.g. making copies beyond the permitted limit

    • reporting of (attempts to) breach the licence

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Technological Protections for I.P. ObjectsInformation Infrastructure

  • siphoning off of Internet bandwidth for VPNs

  • enhanced server controls over clients

  • enhanced identification of:

    • devices

    • individuals

  • a new protocol suite, controlled by

    governments and large corporations

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Copyright Expansion

  • Accidental Need for a Consumer to Have a Licence

  • Shift From Copyright to Contract

  • Threats to Fair Use, e.g. for research and study

  • Threats to Statutory Licensing

  • Threats to Equitable Public Access

  • Threats to Anonymous and Pseudonymous Access

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Copyright ExpansionismWhat Major Publishing Houses Are Seeking

  • Existing Exclusive Rights of a Copyright-Owner:

    • to reproduce/copy, to re-publish, to adapt

  • The Broader Rights being sought include:

    • control of use through rendering, incl.

      display, print, play, ‘read’/render as speech

    • control of transport, incl. transfer, lend

    • control of derivative rights, incl. extract, embed

    • control of ‘time-shifting’ and even backup

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Embedment in Marketspace MechanismsElectronic Copyright Management Systems (ECMS)Digital Rights Management Languages (DRML)

  • Proprietary (Xerox et al.)

  • Industry-Standard

    • Owner-Oriented

    • Corporate-Consumer-Oriented

  • Balanced Standards (ODRL)

    • Originator

    • Owner

    • Corporate Consumer

    • Individual Consumer

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Civil Liberties Abusesin the Service of Publishing Houses

  • criminalisation of many mainstream activities (DMCA)

  • lawyers’ ‘nastygrams’ threatening prosecution (Felten)

  • gaoling for lengthy periods, without bail, with delayed charges, and with charges withdrawn once the chilling effect has been achieved (Skylarov, Johansen)

  • additional proposals (in an Aust Parltry report!!):

    • reversal of the onus of proof

    • increased civil seizure powers

    • withdrawal of self-incrimination privileges

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Patent Issues

  • von Clausewitz Revisited:

    I.P. as a Weapon of National Strategy

  • Patentability of ‘Business Methods’

  • Greatly Lowered Threshhold of Novelty

  • Collaborative Standards undermined by Patent-Based, Proprietary Monopolies

  • Anti-Innovation Uses of Patents

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Patent Law as a Weaponof U.S. National Strategy

  • US Government Policy since Carter

  • Dictated by the interests of very large corporations that acquire and use patents as part of their business model

  • US Government Pressure through WIPO

  • Craven Weakness of some Governments

  • Naiveté of yet more Governments, which have failed to recognise and participate in the game of international strategy

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U.S. Software Patents, andBusiness Methods Patentswith Some Blind Followers

  • Explosion from c. 1990

  • USPTO’s extraordinarily liberal approvals, following a change in US Government policy designed to advantage US corporations

  • 2000 filings in the US in 1999, of which 1350 re Internet, and 500 re e-commerce

  • 1500 filings in Australia in 2001

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Instances of Ridiculous Patents

  • Multimedia (Compton)

  • One-Click Shopping (Amazon)

  • Affiliate Program Linking (Amazon)

  • Reverse Auction (Priceline)

  • Display of Text and Images (Pangea)

  • Automated Credit-Checking (Pangea)

  • Consumer Payment for Clicking (CyberGold)

  • Method of Swinging on a Swing

    US Patent 6,387,227 issued 9 April 2002

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Web-Linking – British Telecom, 4,873,662 of 1989

  • Vannevar Bush, Atlantic Monthly, 1945

  • Ted Nelson’s Xanadu, 1960-65

  • Engelbart, 1968 – “innovations demonstrated that day [included] hypertext, object addressing and dynamic file linking”

  • But there are even more patents!!

    • IBM – 6,195,707

    • Lockheed Martin – 6,154,752

    • IBM – 5,924,104

Method of swinging on a swing us patent 6 387 227 issued 9 april 2002 steven olsen st paul mn 55104 l.jpg
Method of Swinging on a SwingUS Patent 6,387,227 issued 9 April 2002Steven Olsen, St Paul MN 55104

“The method comprises the steps of:

(a) positioning a user on the seat; and

(b) having the user pull alternately on one chain to induce movement of the user and the swing toward one side, and then on the other chain to induce movement of the user and the swing toward the other side, to create side-to-side motion”.

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Miniature Patents

  • ‘Petty Patent’

  • Australian 'Innovation Patent’

    • nominally: to lower costs for SMEs

    • in practice: to make SMEs a more attractive takeover target, by offering the purchaser cheap I.P.

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The Uses of Patents

  • Revenue

    • Licensing Fees

    • Extortion (Settlement << Legal Costs)

  • Window of Opportunity for Super-Profits

    • Too-High Licence Fees

    • Prolonged Negotiations on Terms

    • Denial of Licences

    • Threats of Litigation

  • Defence of Litigation through Threat of Counter-Suit Based on Own Patents

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The Views of the NASDAQ-listed Australian company Catuity Inc.

  • When sued, $1 million needed, just to play

  • Utter uncertainty about the ratio decidendi

  • 3/3 legal opinions negated by the court

  • The judge imputed counter-intuitive, non-standard meanings to ‘receipt’ and coupon’

  • Eventually the parties called it quits anyway

  • “Patents are a worthless must-have”

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Origins of the Problem Inc.

  • Aggressive U.S. Strategy, Naive Multilateral Adoption

  • Patent Examination

    • “a coarse sieve, not a fine filter”

    • Reflects Prior Art Base, but not Domain Expertise

  • Patent Contesting Process

    • Abject Failure

  • Patent Cases before the Courts

    • Very lowthreshholds of originality, inventiveness

    • Absence of technical expertise, assistance or advice

    • Plenty of excuses to ignore expert evidence

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The (Information) Economics Assessment Inc.

  • Progress depends on Cumulative Innovation

    People stand on the shoulders of ....

    ... lots of busy elves

  • Evolution is rapid, and 16-20 years is eternity

  • Many breakthroughs involve low investment

  • In the eBusiness Context, Barriers to Innovation?

    • The Absence of Patent Protection is seldom

    • The Presence of Patent Protection is

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Conclusion: TheNew Dark Ages Inc.

The Internet promised information accessibility, but may lead to a decrease in information accessibility:

  • by citizens, which undermines democracy

  • by originators, which undermines creativity

  • by consumers, which undermines consumer choice, but also denies cumulative creativity

  • by knowledge workers within corporations, which undermines innovation

References generally http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References Generally Inc.

Electronic Commerce: EC/index.html


Information Infrastructure: II/index.html


Dataveillance: DV/index.html


Waltzing Matilda: WM/index.html

References the internet http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – The Internet Inc.

Clarke R. (1994) 'Information Infrastructure for The Networked Nation' November 1994, at .../II/NetNation.html (100 pp.)

Clarke R. (1998) ‘The Internet as a Postal Service: A Fairy Story’, February 1998 at, .../II/InternetPS.html

Clarke R., Dempsey G., Ooi C.N. & O'Connor R.F. (1998) ‘A Primer on Internet Technology', February 1998, at .../II/IPrimer.html

Clarke R. (1998-2001) 'A Brief History of the Internet in Australia', at .../II/OzIHist.html

Clarke R. (1998) 'Information Privacy On the Internet: Cyberspace Invades Personal Space' Telecomms J Aust (May/Jun 1998), at .../DV/IPrivacy.html

References cyberculture http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – CyberCulture Inc.

Clarke R. (1995) ‘Netethiquette: Mini Case Studies of Dysfunctional Human Behaviour on the Net’, April 1995, at .../II/Netethiquettecases.html

Clarke R. (1997) , ‘The Neighbourhood’, March 1997, at .../II/Neighbourhood.html

Clarke R. (1997) 'Encouraging Cyberculture', Proc. CAUSE in Australasia '97, Melbourne, March 1997, at .../II/EncoCyberCulture.html

Clarke R. (1997) 'Public Interests on the Electronic Frontier', Proc. IT Security '97, August 1997, at .../II/IIRSecy97.html

References the internet and ethics http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – The Internet and Ethics Inc.

Clarke R. (1988) 'Economic, Legal and Social Implications of Information Technology' MIS Qtly 12,4 (December 1988) 517-9 , at .../DV/ELSIC.html

Clarke R. (1993) 'Asimov's Laws of Robotics: Implications for Information Technology' IEEE Computer 26,12 (December 1993) pp.53-61 and 27,1 (January 1994), pp.57-66, at .../SOS/Asimov.html

Clarke R. (1999) ‘Ethics and the Internet: The Cyberspace Behaviour of People, Communities and Organisations' Bus. & Prof'l Ethics J. 18, 3&4 (1999) 153-167, at .../II/IEthics99.html

References foi the new dark ages 1 of 2 http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – FoI / The New Dark Ages Inc.1 of 2

Clarke R. (1994) 'The Information Age As Threat' National Scholarly Communications Forum, Canberra, 13 Oct 1994, at .../II/PaperNSCF.html

Clarke R. (1999) 'Internet Issues', at .../II/Issues99.html

Clarke R. (1999) ‘Information Wants to be Free’, August 1999, at .../II/IWtbF.html

References foi the new dark ages 2 of 2 http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – FoI / The New Dark Ages Inc.2 of 2

Clarke R. (1999) ‘Freedom of Information? The Internet as Harbinger of the New Dark Ages’, First Monday 4, 11 (November 1999), at .../II/DarkAges.html

Clarke R. (2001) 'Paradise Gained, Paradise Re-lost: How the Internet is being Changed from a Means of Liberation to a Tool of Authoritarianism', Mots Pluriel, .../II/PGPR01.html

Clarke R. (2001) ‘Defamation on the Web’ March 2001, at .../II/DefWeb01.html

Clarke R. (2002) ‘Defamation on the Web: Gutnick v. Dow Jones’ June 2002, at .../II/Gutnick.html

References identification anonymity pseudonymity http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References Inc.Identification, Anonymity, Pseudonymity

Clarke R. (1994) 'Human Identification in Information Systems: Management Challenges and Public Policy Issues' Info. Technology & People 7,4 (December 1994), at .../DV/HumanID.html

Clarke R. (1999) 'Anonymous, Pseudonymous and Identified Transactions: The Spectrum of Choice', Proc. IFIP User Identification & Privacy Protection Conference, Stockholm, June 1999, at .../DV/UIPP99.html

References dataveillance and privacy http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – Dataveillance and Privacy Inc.

‘Information Technology and Dataveillance’, Commun. ACM 31,5 (May 1988) 498-512, at .../DV/CACM88.html

'Information Privacy On the Internet: Cyberspace Invades Personal Space' Telecommunication Journal of Australia 48, 2 (May/June 1998), at .../DV/IPrivacy.html

‘Privacy and Dataveillance, and Organisational Strategy‘, Proc. EDPAC'96, May 1996, at .../DV/PStrat.html

‘Privacy Impact Assessments‘, February 1998, at .../DV/PIA.html

‘Internet Privacy Concerns Confirm the Case for Intervention‘, Commun. ACM 42, 2 (February 1999) 60-67, at .../DV/CACM99.html

References biometrics http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – Biometrics Inc.

Clarke R. (1994) 'Human Identification in Information Systems: Management Challenges and Public Policy Issues' Information Technology & People 7, 4 (December 1994), at .../DV/HumanID.html

Clarke R. (1999, 2001) 'Person-Location and Person-Tracking: Technologies, Risks and Policy Implications' Information Technology & People 14, 2 (Summer 2001) 206-231 , at .../DV/PLT.html

Clarke R. (2002) 'Biometrics Inadequacies & Threats& Privacy-Protective Architecture', at .../DV/NotesCFP02.html#BiomRC and BiomHKU.ppt

References innovation http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – Innovation Inc.

Dempsey G.C. (1998) ‘Knowledge and Innovation in Intellectual Property: The Case of Computer Program Copyright' PhD Thesis, Aust. Nat'l Uni., 1998, in particular Chapter 4 (pp.55-83)

Dempsey G.C. (1999) ‘Revisiting Intellectual Property Policy: Information Economics for the Information Age’ Prometheus 17, 1 (March 1999) 33-40, at .../II/DempseyProm.html

Clarke R, (2002) ‘eBusiness andeInnovation’ PowerPoint slide-set for European Patents Office, June 2002, at

References copyright http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – Copyright Inc.

Clarke R. & Dempsey G. (1999) 'Electronic Trading in Copyright Objects and Its Implications for Universities', at .../EC/ETCU.html

Clarke R. & Nees S. (1999) 'Technological Protections for Digital Copyright Objects', at .../II/TPDCO.html

Clarke R., Higgs P.L. & Dempsey G. (2000) 'Key Design Issues in Marketspaces for Intellectual Property Rights', at .../EC/Bled2K.html

Clarke R, (2000) ‘File-Discovery and File-Sharing Technologies (aka Peer-to-Peer or P2P): MP3, Napster and Friends’, at .../EC/FDST.html

Clarke R, (2002) ‘eBusiness andCopyright’ PowerPoint slide-set for European Patents Office, June 2002, at

References patents http www anu edu au people roger clarke l.jpg
References – Patents Inc.

Dempsey G.C. (1998) ‘Knowledge and Innovation in Intellectual Property: The Case of Computer Program Copyright' PhD Thesis, Aust. Nat'l Uni., 1998, in particular Chapter 4 (pp.55-83)

Dempsey G.C. (1999) ‘Revisiting Intellectual Property Policy: Information Economics for the Information Age’ Prometheus 17, 1 (March 1999) 33-40, at .../II/DempseyProm.html

Clarke R, (2002) ‘eBusiness andPatents’ PowerPoint slide-set for European Patents Office, June 2002, at

References 1 of 4 l.jpg
References – 1 of 4 Inc.

Barlow J.P. (1994) 'The Economy of Ideas: A Framework for patents and copyrights in the Digital Age', Wired 2.03 (March 1994), at

Barlow J.P. (2000) 'The Next Economy Of Ideas: Will copyright survive the Napster bomb? Nope, but creativity will' Wired 8.10 (October 2000), at

Benner J. (2002) 'Public money, private code' Salon Jan. 4, 2002, at

References 2 of 4 l.jpg
References – 2 of 4 Inc.

Dyson E. (1995) 'Intellectual Value' Wired 3.07 (July 1995), at

Greenleaf G.W. (1998) 'An Endnote on Regulating Cyberspace: Architecture vs Law?' UN.S.W. L. J. 21, 2 (November 1998), at

Greenleaf G.W. (1999) '"IP, phone home" - ECMS, ©-tech, and protecting privacy against surveillance by digital works' Proc. 21st Int'l Conf. Privacy and Personal Date Protection, 13-15 September 1999, Hong Kong SAR, China. at

References 3 of 4 l.jpg
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