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Recent Trends in IT-Technologies and Internet-based Services

Recent Trends in IT-Technologies and Internet-based Services

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Recent Trends in IT-Technologies and Internet-based Services

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  1. Recent Trends in IT-Technologies and Internet-based Services C.-C. Jay Kuo University of Southern California

  2. Introduction • IT has developed rapidly over the last 50 years and become mature nowadays • Recent major achievements: • Internet (including wired and wireless IP networks) • Digital media • The new trend has focused on novel IT applications • iPod, iPhone, Wii, etc. C.-C. Jay Kuo

  3. IT Paradigm Shift • Implementation: from analog to digital • System: from PC-centric to network-centric • Information decimation: from one-way broadcasting to two-way interaction • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure provision to contents and value-added services C.-C. Jay Kuo

  4. Why Digital Implementation (1)? • Low cost for high-accuracy computation • Image: 24 bits per pixel for representation • Processing resolution for block DCT is around 14 bits for 8-bit input dynamic range • Audio: 16 bits per sample for representation • Processing resolution for MDCT is around 26 bits • Data encryption will have an even higher processing resolution requirement • Spectrum scrambling vs DES (or RSA) • Processing cost comparison • Digital: linear with the resolution • Analog: nonlinear with the resolution C.-C. Jay Kuo

  5. Comparison of Implementations for Engineering Designs • Mechanical implementation • Lowest efficiency • Big discrepency between theoretical and practical designed systems • Electrical/Electronic implementation • Small discrepency between theoretical and practical designed systems • Digital implementation • There is basically no gap between theoretical and practical designed systems if the design can be well described mathematically C.-C. Jay Kuo

  6. Impact to SONY • Sony was the leader in consumer electronics due to its excellent analog system design • Beautiful color • High audio quality • Sony lost the edge due to the digital implementation • Digital implementation is algorithmic, not electrical/electronic circuits C.-C. Jay Kuo

  7. + = Why Digital Implementation (2)? • Flexibility in media integration and manipulation • New media • Computer graphics and animation • Integration of different media types • Natural and synthetic data integration C.-C. Jay Kuo

  8. More Implications of Unified Data/Media Representation • Shared infra-structure • The mechanism of sending e-mails and voice/video packets has no fundamental difference (except for QoS) • The significance of “voice pathway” (i.e. POTS) drops significantly C.-C. Jay Kuo

  9. Example: VOIP and Skype • Skype is a big threat to telco • Competitive edges • Free VoIP service • Low-cost Skype-in and Skype-out • Quality of Service • Significantly better than Yahoo & MSN messenger due to successful P2P networking technologies • Enhanced services • Premium VoIP service • Other value-added services? C.-C. Jay Kuo

  10. Impact to Telco • The telecommunication companies used to make profits by charging people’s usage of networking infra-structure • However, speech can travel through all IP networks nowadays • Many telecommunication companies are under a big threat • losing their business in an alarming rate C.-C. Jay Kuo

  11. Film Cameras Polarold Camera Once Time Use Camera Professional SLR Medium Format Camera Portable Camera C.-C. Jay Kuo

  12. Digital Still Camera (DSC) • Main difference - no film needed - has a sensor that converts light into electrical charges • Image sensor - most DSC: coupled device (CCD) - some low-end camera: complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology • Resolution - measured in pixels • 1216x912 pixels: (1.1 megapixel) good for print images • 1600x1200 pixels: (2 million pixels) good for 8x10 inches image CMOS C.-C. Jay Kuo

  13. Impact to Kodak • Kodak was dominant in the film camera • The main income comes from the sale of films • Kodak had the best digital still camera team in 90’s • Used as a performance benchmark for the film camera • Kodak wanted to show that DSC could not compete with film cameras • Kodak’s business shrinks significantly in recent years C.-C. Jay Kuo

  14. IT Paradigm Shift • Implementation: from analog to digital • System: from PC/system-centric to network/individual-centric • Information decimation: from one-way broadcasting to two-way interaction • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure provision to contents and value-added services C.-C. Jay Kuo

  15. Power of Networking • Blurred boundaries between remote and local • Remote storage can be accessed easily • Remote resources can be leveraged locally • Application programs can be leased • Encouraging sharing and interaction among users • Napster/Baidu/YouTube • Wikipedia (free encyclopedia) • Blogs C.-C. Jay Kuo

  16. Google versus Microsoft • Thick client versus thin client • Thick client solution • Many software installed in local PC • Powerful PC is needed • Software update is expensive and troublesome • Thin client solution • Networked devices • Resource sharing • However, a minimum amount of local storage is still needed C.-C. Jay Kuo

  17. From Client-Server to Cloud Computing Environment SaaS: Software as a Service Client Fog Cloud Michael Armbrust, Armando Fox, Rean Griffith, Anthony D. Joseph, Randy Katz, Andy Konwinski, Gunho Lee, David Patterson, Ariel Rabkin, Ion Stoica, and Matei Zaharia, “Above the clouds: A Berkeley view of cloud computing”. C.-C. Jay Kuo

  18. Mobile Devices • Portability • Pervasive computing • Ubiquitous computing • Communication capability • Personal communication system • 3G • WLAN, Bluetooth • Multimedia capability • A/V capturing • A/V display Embedded processors C.-C. Jay Kuo

  19. Phone Camera • The fastest growing market in DSC • Mobile phone with built-in camera • Server-based infrastructure allows users to share pictures and video • Web-based browser in the receiving end C.-C. Jay Kuo

  20. Portable Media Players • General MP3 players • Large capacity hard drive versus • Light-weighted flash memory • Apple i-pod • Large capacity: using hard drive up to 80GB • Good browsing system to search music • i-tune online music purchasing • Complete business model C.-C. Jay Kuo

  21. Apple iPhone • Cell phone • Quad-band GSM (850/900/1800/1900) • Widescreen iPod with touch controls • 3.5 Inch widescreen display • iTune support of music, TV and movies • Internet communications • 2.5G EDGE networks • 802.11b/g Wi-Fi • Bluetooth 2.0 C.-C. Jay Kuo

  22. From Functionalities to Individualism • Stylish products for individuals • IT products • Go beyond its practical values • Functionalities • Robustness • Reflects the taste and social status of an individual • Brand-names merchandises (coffee, clothes, shoes, etc.) C.-C. Jay Kuo

  23. Emerging Trend: IPTV • Internet protocol TV • Main advantages • Cost • Standard networking protocols • Low cost for users and operators • Interactivity • Make TV viewing experience interactive and personalized • On-demand services • Triple play • Telephony, data and video C.-C. Jay Kuo

  24. IT Paradigm Shift • Implementation: from analog to digital • System: from PC-centric to network-centric • Information decimation: from one-way broadcasting to two-way interaction • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure provision to contents and value-added services C.-C. Jay Kuo

  25. On-Demand vs. Broadcasting • Pull (on-demand) vs. push (broadcasting) • Broadcasting is more economic for delivery system • Broadcasting works well for live events or hot content • On-demand is more user friendly • Other content delivery will be shifted to on-demand services • Trend moves from push to pull behavior • Newspaper • TV news • E-news C.-C. Jay Kuo

  26. Modern Advertisements • Traditional advertisements • Newspaper • TV commercials • Banners in portals • Modern advertisements • Driven by user’s need • Search reveals the need • Conversation reveals the need • Cost sharing with sellers (not buyers/users) C.-C. Jay Kuo

  27. Google’s Advertisement Business • Profit sharing with merchants • Sale of keywords • G-mail advertisement C.-C. Jay Kuo

  28. Impact to Broadcasters • IT broadcasting will be a major trend • The infra-structure advantage of traditional broadcasting companies disappears quickly • Newspapers may phase out soon C.-C. Jay Kuo

  29. Top 10 Most Popular Website (November 2007, Alexa Internet) 1 yahoo.com 2 google.com 3 youtube.com- Web 2.0 4 msn.com 5 live.com 6 myspace.com- Social Networking 7 facebook.com- Social Networking 8 wikipedia.org- Web 2.0 9 hi5.com - Social Networking 10 orkut.com - Social Networking 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 29

  30. “Time” Magazine - Person of the Year 2006 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 30

  31. Web 2.0 • 2nd generation of web-based services • Open source, Web APIs, Web standards and online Web services • Examples • Web bloging (weblog) • Social network websites • Social bookmarking • Wikipedia • File Sharing (YouTube) C.-C. Jay Kuo

  32. Web 2.0-Based Services • Google • Mail, maps, calendar, word processing, spreadsheets • Amazon • User reviews, “People who bought this item also purchased” • eBay • User generated auctions • Wikipedia • Collaborative Encyclopedia • YouTube • Video sharing • Mapquest • Online maps and directions 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 32

  33. Core Competencies of Web 2.0 Service Companies • Services, not packaged software, with cost-effective scalability • Control over unique, hard-to-recreate data sources that get richer as more people join • Trusting users as co-developers • Using collective intelligence • Customer self-service • Software above the level of a single device • Lightweight user interfaces, development models, and business models 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 33

  34. YouTube (1) • Most popular video sharing website • Unique URL for individual video • Direct access to a particular video • Video embedding in other website • Make good personal video blogs! • Provide HTML codes C.-C. Jay Kuo

  35. YouTube (2) • User comments and review • Foster the Internet communities • Tags • Metadata for videos • Flexible, automatically generated internet taxonomies • Video search and retrieval • Query by tags via text search engines • Related video, video from the same user and playlists C.-C. Jay Kuo

  36. Social Network Websites Social networking sites with at least 1million users registered 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 36

  37. MySpace.com & Facebook.com • Social network websites providing interactive: • Blogs • User profiles • Groups • Photos 2014-03-10 C.-C. Jay Kuo C.-C. Jay Kuo 37

  38. IT Paradigm Shift • Implementation: from analog to digital • System: from PC-centric to network-centric • Information decimation: from one-way broadcasting to two-way interaction • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure provision to contents and value-added services C.-C. Jay Kuo

  39. Business Models • IT business models • Hardware providers • OEM manufacturers in China/Taiwan • Software providers • Microsoft, Adobe, etc. • Infra-structure providers • Traditional Telco • Service providers • Google, Dell, E-Bay, Amazon, SW subscription • Content providers • Disney, Universal Studio, Electronic Arts (EA), Nintendo, C.-C. Jay Kuo

  40. Future Perspectives • More values moves towards services and contents • Services • Connecting supply and demand • Information is the power! • Contents • Good contents should be paid • Digital rights management C.-C. Jay Kuo

  41. Creating New Service Opportunities in IT Platform • Example: language translation in Skype • Automatic speech translation between two different languages over the international phone call • Value-added services • Powerful edge processors (a concept linked with grid computing) • A few partners work with Skype on the language translation project C.-C. Jay Kuo

  42. Challenges in Web Services • Requirements on Information sources • Scalability • Real-time • Reliable • Examples • Dell • E-bay • Google C.-C. Jay Kuo

  43. More about IT Service Industry • The gap between no. 1 and no. 2 is very big • Google versus Yahoo • Google versus Baidu in China (or NHN in Korea) • A portal in one service sector • Search: Google • Books: Amazon • Auction: E-Bay • Computers and peripherals: Dell C.-C. Jay Kuo

  44. Conclusion

  45. IT Paradigm Shift • Implementation: from analog to digital • System: from PC/system-centric to network/individual-centric • Information decimation: from one-way broadcasting to two-way interaction • Values: from HW/SW/infra-structure provision to contentsand value-added services C.-C. Jay Kuo

  46. New Horizon for IT Industry • Three main ingredients in business • People • Demand • Supply • IT provides a new business platform • Where are people? • What is their need? • Who can meet the need? C.-C. Jay Kuo