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“Where were you last summer?” “In Majorca.” “Where is that?” “I don’t know, I flew there.” PowerPoint Presentation
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“Where were you last summer?” “In Majorca.” “Where is that?” “I don’t know, I flew there.”. Americans and Geography. Push/Pull Sunlust Wanderlust. What Makes Us Travel?. Travel Motivation Theory Wanderlust A desire to learn To seek an unknown place Also called “seeking” Sunlust

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“Where were you last summer?”

“In Majorca.”

“Where is that?”

“I don’t know, I flew there.”

Americans and Geography

gray 1970
Travel Motivation Theory
  • Wanderlust
    • A desire to learn
    • To seek an unknown place
    • Also called “seeking”
  • Sunlust
    • A desire for rest and relaxation
    • To find specific facilities that do not exist at the place of residence
    • Also called “escaping”
Gray (1970)
time distance
In the United States, tourism is typically considered travel (ABA) that is at least 100 miles from point A to point B, and has a duration of at least 24 hours
  • This should include spending the night at point B and not just 24 hours of driving
Time & Distance
  • Social/Economic
  • Temporal
  • Topographical/Geographical
  • Mental/State of Mind
  • Artificial
the image a guide to pseudo events in america
“…adventure was originally that which happened without design…now in common usage it is primarily a contrived experience that somebody is trying to sell us”The ImageA Guide to Pseudo-Events in America
Would the average person (the tourist), know which piece of modern art was worth visiting, which building was important or which vineyard had the best grapes?Sight
  • Cultural Imperialism
  • Intervening Opportunity
  • Site/Sight
  • The Grand Tour
  • The Package Tour
sight marker
We need a sign to say that a vineyard is Mondovi
  • We need a marker to indicate which building is a Van der Rohe
  • We need a marker to tell us which is a Matisse (and even why Matisse is important)
why iyhw
Stereotypes for cultures and places were actually increased (rather than decreased) though this form of tourism as Westerners demanded to see what they already expected, rather than what was really thereWhy IYHW?
So, instead of destroying myths and stereotypes between countries, mass tourism perpetrates themMyths
Tourists seek the unique
  • Mass tourism packages the unique
  • Culture and geography are reduced to a few standard elements
  • Tourist learns these before he begins his tour…
selective awareness
Thus, the tourist is aware of his foreign environment only when he reaches the spot of interest – one of the select standard elementsSelective Awareness
mass tourism
So, while the desire to experience the novel and strange has increased, these actual qualities of these experiences have decreased in tourismMass Tourism
So if we’re not going to learn anything, why are we going?
  • (And you can argue this – you may say that we are going to learn something)
Briefly, sightseeing in modern society can serve as a representation of good and evil (often to reinforce a moral base)Sightseeing
Visiting the finer monuments and attractions of society produces feelings of respect and admiration (either for one’s own society or for the visited one)Sightseeing
Equally important, is the attitude of disgust associated with seeing muggings, abandoned buildings, polluted rivers, etc.
  • It helps to keep the moral order intact
  • It makes you glad as a tourist that you do not live there
strength through joy kraft durch freude kdf
A state controlled leisure organization (part of the German Labor Front)
  • Set up to promote National Socialism
  • Became the world’s largest tourism operator during the 1930s
Strength through Joy“Kraft durch Freude” (KdF)
strength through joy kraft durch freude kdf21
I wish that the worker be granted a sufficient holiday and that everything is done, in order to let this holiday as well all other leisure time to be truly recreational.Strength through Joy“Kraft durch Freude” (KdF)
strength through joy kraft durch freude kdf22
Perfection and refinement of the German people through very structure leisure/recreational programs
  • (Think back to leisure being dependent on perceived freedom)
Strength through Joy“Kraft durch Freude” (KdF)
the case of torremolinos
Fishing Village in Spain
  • Destination for the “beautiful people”
  • Discovered by Hitler
  • Catered to Germans
  • Forgotten for other destinations
The Case of Torremolinos
the grand tour
17th and 18th centuries
  • Diplomats, businessmen and scholars, wealthy young men
  • Three year trip was common
The Grand Tour
the grand tour27
Was not superficial – resulted in a very complete knowledge of the places visited, including languages and detailed traditions
  • Paris, Genoa, Milan, Florence, Rome, Venice, Germany, the Low Countries, Switzerland and even Greece and Egypt
The Grand Tour
the grand tour legacy
Tourism and The Grand Tour were very elitist
  • Many of the locations visited on The Grand Tour are still popular destinations today
The Grand Tour (Legacy)
mass tourism29
The Package Tour
    • Combined transportation, lodgings, sightseeing, money exchange, etc.
    • First organized by Thomas Cook (1841)
    • Cook organized them to allow people to attend temperance meetings (of the Baptist church)
    • Cook negotiated a special fare due to the large number of people
Mass Tourism
mass tourism30
Cook organized a tour to Paris in 1855 for the expo
  • By 1864, Cook had offices in Rome, New York, London, Paris and other major cities
  • Mass tourism is directly connected to religious tourism
Mass Tourism
religious pilgrimages
The first true mass tourists were religious pilgrims
  • For reasons of safety, traveling in mass was advisable
  • The average person worked too hard to afford the time to travel (unless for a religious reason)
Religious Pilgrimages
Religious pilgrimages often incorporated many of the element of modern travel:
    • Lodging
    • Souvenirs (shopping)
    • Eating (feasts as well as establishments that served food)
    • Festivals (entertainment, events and holidays)
religion and tourism
Religious sites are still popular tourist destinations for believers and non-believers
  • There was a “pilgrimage season” in medieval Europe, almost like a vacation period
Religion and Tourism
cohen s typology
Relationship between novelty and familiarity
    • Institutionalized
      • Organized Mass Tourist
      • Individual Mass Tourist
    • Non-Institutionalized
      • Explorer
      • Drifter
Cohen’s Typology
organized mass tourist
    • Least adventurous – prefers “microenvironment” of home country
    • Guided tour (in air-conditioned bus)
    • Fixed trip itinerary (makes few, if any, decisions)
    • Package deal tourism is just another item to buy like a suit or a ballgame ticket
Organized Mass Tourist
individual mass tourist
    • Not bound to a group, but…
      • Most arrangements still made through some kind of tourist-related agency
      • Most of experiences are the same as the OMT- sticks to well-charted territory
      • Novelty is somewhat more important, although it is typically routine novelty
      • A bit more spontaneous??
Individual Mass Tourist
    • Makes own arrangements (alone)
    • Deviates from tried and true routes (although accommodations and transportation are still usually westernized)
    • Leaves “environmental bubble” but it is never out of sight
the explorer
Communication is attempted and the common tourist places avoided
  • Most of the observation is still aesthetic however
  • No real intellectual communication attempted
The Explorer
the explorer39
Actually, by avoiding the tried and true, the explorer (hence the name) “discovers” new places and new select elements to visit – thus spearheading new places for mass tourismThe Explorer
the drifter41
A genuine modern phenomenon (a modern take on the Grand Tour, without the formal educational component)
    • Young
    • Usually a student
    • A child of affluence (although he usually reacts against it)
    • Moves around the world in search of new experiences
    • Once done, usually rejoins the establishment
The Drifter
the drifter42
No itinerary
  • No purpose
  • Wants to prolong travels (often to avoid “growing up”)
  • Not concerned with bodily comforts
  • Prefers “kindred souls” to the host country’s elite
The Drifter
    • Shuns connections with other tourists or the tourist establishment
    • Considers tourist experience to be phony
    • “Lives” in host community, gets odd-jobs to make money, has no time schedule
    • Adopts their language, customs, food, clothing
    • Rejects his home culture almost completely (save memories of dear relatives or very important traditions)
ideas related to sustainable tourism
See Your World.

Learn Your World.

Protect Your World.

Ideas Related to Sustainable Tourism