Job analysis the process of gathering detailed information about jobs
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JOB ANALYSIS : ... the process of gathering detailed information about jobs. Job analysis is very important to HR managers and has been called the building block of all HRM functions. Almost every HRM program requires some type of information determined by job analysis:. Selection

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Job analysis the process of gathering detailed information about jobs l.jpg
JOB ANALYSIS: ...the process of gathering detailed information about jobs

  • Job analysis is very important to HR managers and has been called the building block of all HRM functions.

  • Almost every HRM program requires some type of information determined by job analysis:

  • Selection

    • Job Descriptions

    • Job Specifications

  • Human resource planning

  • Job evaluation

    • Compensable Factors

  • Performance appraisal

  • Training

  • Career planning

  • Work redesign


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LEGISLATION WHICH REQUIRESJOB ANALYSIS

FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT – 1938

Status of “exempt” and “Non-exempt” jobs determined by job analysis

EQUAL PAY ACT – 1963

If jobs are not substantially different, similar pay must be provided

Proof of similarity/difference found by conducting job analysis

CIVIL RIGHTS ACT – 1964

Job analysis helps to accurately describe job duties and to defend the qualifications needed in a job

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH ACT – 1970

Job analysis establishes the work conditions and risks faced at work

AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT – 1990

Job analysis is necessary to establish the essential functions of each job


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QUESTIONS TO ASK WHENCONDUCTING JOB ANALYSIS

WHY does this job exist? (purpose)

WHERE is this job performed? (location)

WHEN is this job performed? (hours of normal work)

WHICH TASKS (mental & physical) are to be accomplished? (activities)

HOW should the worker perform the job? (methods and techniques)

WHICH TOOLS are used on this job? (equipment, tools, software)

WHO does the worker interact with? (coordinating relationships)

WHAT OUTCOMES are to be achieved? (expected results)

WHAT QUALIFICATIONS must I have to do this job? (specifications)


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JOB ANALYSIS NEEDED TO DEVELOP:

JOB DESCRIPTIONS

Specific duties and tasks one is to accomplish

JOB SPECIFICATIONS

Minimum competencies & abilities needed to hold the job

JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM

Compensable factors used to determine the worth of each position

PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM

Standards to evaluate how well the worker performs the job


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SOURCES OF JOB INFORMATION

JOB HOLDERS / INCUMBENTS

- People who currently do the work

MANAGERS / SUPERVISORS

- Those who supervise and evaluate the work

THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES

- Published by the Department of Labor

THE OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION NETWORK (O*NET)

- An online job description database created by the Department of Labor

OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

- Other firms who have similar jobs


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COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS DATA-1

QUESTIONNAIRES

+ Economical with time and effort

+ Answers get written down

+ Data can be reviewed by supervisor

- May not ask the right questions (important job info may be omitted)

- Subject to possible distortion by workers

- Some may not get filled out (low response rate)

JOB LOGS

+ Keeps a daily record of what is done (better than memory)

+ Raises consciousness and sensitivity to what one does on the job

- Some workers are too busy to write down what they’re doing

- Some may not be very precise/accurate in keeping their work log

- Subject to distortion and embellishment


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COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS DATA-2

OBSERVATION

+ Best for physical, short-cycle jobs that aren’t automatically paced

+ Observable actions can be taped/recorded and analyzed later

- Can’t observe mental work, or work with long job cycles

- Observation erodes worker morale (They don’t trust me!)

- Workers can slow down, restrict output, or show off (distortion)

INTERVIEWS

+ Can gather info on mental activities

+ Builds personal relationships with workers – makes info exchange easier

+ Ambiguous situations/facts can be clarified – through further questioning

+ Can interview both the job incumbent as well as the supervisor

- Workers may embellish the worth of their positions

- Supervisors may not really know what the worker does in the job


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COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS DATA-3

REVIEW OLD JOB DESCRIPTIONS

+ Provides a look back into the past (job)

+ A large part of the job probably hasn’t changed much

+ Helps us maintain continuity and consistency

- Tendency to overlook the changes that have occurred in the job

REVIEW SIMILAR DESCRIPTIONS FROM OTHER FIRMS

+ Can find new ways/phrases to describe the position

+ Uncovers new activities and tasks that could be assigned

- Do these descriptions really “fit” our organization?

- Tendency of many firms to simply copy other firms’ descriptions


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SPECIAL JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

FUNCTIONAL JOB ANALYSIS (FJA)

Describes jobs in terms of involvement with “people, data and things.” Assesses specific job outputs and tasks.

Was the first attempt to build a universal job analysis instrument. Very similar to Dept of Labor Job Analysis Schedule

POSITION ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE (PAQ)

McCormick’s standardized 194 item questionnaire organized into six sections: Information inputs, mental processes, work output, relationships, job context, and other characteristics. Measures what a worker does on the job (behavior)…not what they accomplish. PAQ has been widely used.

MANAGEMENT POSITION DESCRIPTION QUESTIONNAIRE (MPDQ)

Uses a checklist to analyze management positions. Also used to assess the training needs of individuals slated to move into management positions, to set compensation, and to assign management jobs to job families.

TASK ANALYSIS INVENTORY ( http://www.andrews.edu/~schwab/janal-q1.html) (TAI)

Generates a list of tasks performed on each job. Assesses importance, time spent, frequency, etc. Can be customized to the organization. Related to the NAM/NMTA system. Used by government and military.

GUIDELINES-ORIENTED JOB ANALYSIS (GOJA)

Tries to be sensitive to staffing law requirements. Uses a step-by-step procedure to document compliance with various legal requirements. Gathers information on 1) machines, tools, and equipment, 2) supervision, 3) contacts, 4) duties, 5) knowledge, skills, and abilities, 6) physical and other requirements, and 7) differentiating requirements. A logical extension of the Task Analysis Inventory. Also used to develop application forms and selection criteria.

O*NET (http://online.onetcenter.org) (ONET)

A searchable database with 33 specific knowledge areas, 10 basic skills, and 36 cross-functional skills reported for each position or title; has links to DOT and wage data by position. A useful current database.

JOBDESCRIPTIONS.COM (http://www.jobdescriptions.com) Click on “examples” … then click “receptionist”


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Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ)

What is it?

Key sections:

Information input

Mental processes

Work output

Relationships with other persons

Job context

Other characteristics

  • A standardized job analysis questionnaire containing 194 questions about work behaviors, work conditions, and job characteristics that apply to a wide variety of jobs.


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TASK ANALYSIS QUESTIONAIRENAM/NTMA STANDARDS

  • JOB SUMMARY - In 50 words or less

  • WORK ACTIVITIES - Separate duties by example into categories

    • Daily/Repetitive activities

    • Periodic/Predictable activities

    • Irregular/Unpredictable activities

    • Sequential/Ordered activities

  • RESPONSIBILITIES and ACCOUNTABILITIES

  • DECISION AUTHORITY and DISCRETION

  • COORDINATED WORK and OUTSIDE CONTACTS

  • EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, and SOFTWARE USED

  • PHYSICAL DEMANDS and REQUIREMENTS

  • EMOTIONAL and MENTAL DEMANDS

  • ESSENTIAL JOB REQUIREMENTS (SKAs, education, licenses)

  • WORKING CONDITIONS and ENVIRONMENT

  • INDICATORS OF SUCCESS

  • HARDEST PART OF THE JOB


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JOB DESCRIPTION (NAM/NMTA Format)

IDENTIFICATION SECTION

Job Title (and number)

Base Department

Supervisor’s Title

Job Status

Normal Hours of Work

Revision Date

Analyzer

JOB SUMMARY SECTION(SUMMARY DESCRIPTION)

Short overview of major job responsibilities and objectives (50 words or less)

RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES SECTION (DUTIES BY EXAMPLE)

Arrange under subheadings (eg, DAILY, PERIODIC, IRREGULAR)

Arrange in descending order of importance within each subheading

ACCOUNTABILITIES SECTION (ACCOUNTABILITIES)

Equipment, Tools, or Software Used

Supervision Received and Given

Coordinating Relationships

Expected Results


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JOB SPECIFICATION FACTORS

SKILLS

FORMAL EDUCATION

EXPERIENCE

COMMUNICATION SKILLS

MATHEMATICAL SKILLS

COMPUTER SKILLS

REASONING ABILITY

EFFORT

PHYSICAL EFFORT

DEXTERITY

MENTAL CONCENTRATION

RESPONSIBILITY

SUPERVISION OF OTHERS

CONFIDENTIALITY/INFORMATION

PHYSICAL ASSETS

CONTACTS WITH OTHERS

WORKING CONDITIONS

HAZARDS

JOB CONDITIONS


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Job Design

  • Job Design:the process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job.

  • Job Redesign: a similar process that involves changing an existing job design.

  • To design jobs effectively, a person must thoroughly understand:

    • the job itself (through job analysis) and

    • its place in the units work flow (work flow analysis)



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JOB DESIGN POSSIBILITIES

(JOB SCOPE) (JOB DEPTH)

VARIETYAUTONOMY

JOB SPECIALIZATION LIMITED VERY LIMITED

AUTOMATION LIMITED INCREASES

JOB ENLARGEMENT INCREASES LIMITED

JOB ROTATION INCREASES LIMITED

JOB ENRICHMENT INCREASES INCREASES

AUTONOMOUS TEAM INCREASES INCREASES


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Designing Efficient Jobs

  • Industrial Engineering / Specialization: study jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency.

    • Reduces the complexity of work.

    • Allows almost anyone to be trained quickly and easily perform the job.

    • Used for highly specialized and repetitive jobs.

  • Automation: use robotics and computers to do the work that people have done in the past.

    • Computers/robots are more efficient…they don’t get tired or bored.


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Designing Jobs That Motivate(add some variety)


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Designing Jobs That Motivate (continued)

Job Enrichment

Self-Managing Work Teams

Have authority for an entire work process or segment:

schedule work

hire team members

resolve team performance problems

perform other duties traditionally handled by management

Team members motivated by autonomy, skill variety, and task identity.

  • Empowering workers by adding more decision-making authority to jobs.

  • Based on Hackman’s and Herzberg’s theories of motivation.

  • Individuals are motivated more by the intrinsic aspects of work.


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Designing Jobs That Motivate:

THE JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL (Hackman)

  • Skill variety – the extent to which a job requires a variety of skills to carry out the tasks involved.

  • Task identity – the degree to which a job requires completing a “whole” piece of work from beginning to end.

  • Task significance – the extent to which the job has an important impact on the lives of other people.

  • Autonomy – the degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way work will be carried out.

  • Feedback - the extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself.


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JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODELHACKMAN & OLDHAM (75)

CORE JOB PSYCHOLOGICAL

DIMENSIONSSTATE OF MIND

SKILL VARIETY MEANINGFULNESS

TASK IDENTITY =========== OF WORK

TASK SIGNIFICANCE

RESPONSIBILITY

AUTONOMY ============== FOR OUTCOMES

FEEDBACK =============== KNOWLEDGE OF

RESULTS

MODERATED BY INDIVIDUAL “GROWTH NEED” STRENGTH


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JOB ENRICHMENTHERZBERG (68)

ACCOUNTABILITY

HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR PERFORMANCE

ACHIEVEMENT

DOING SOMETHING WORTHWHILE (MEANINGFUL)

FEEDBACK

GETS DIRECT PERFORMANCE INFORMATION

WORK PACE

ABLE TO SET OWN WORK SPEED

CONTROL OVER RESOURCES

CONTROLS HOW TO DO THE JOB

PERSONAL GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN NEW SKILLS


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HERZBERG’S PRACTICALENRICHMENT PRINCIPLES

REMOVE SOME CONTROLS WHILE RETAINING ACCOUNTABILITY

INCREASE WORKER ACCOUNTABILITY FOR THEIR OWN WORK

ASSIGN A COMPLETE NATURAL UNIT OF WORK

GRANT ADDITIONAL AUTHORITY AND JOB FREEDOM

FEEDBACK ALL PERFORMANCE DIRECTLY TO THE WORKER

ASSIGN NEW, MORE DIFFICULT TASKS NOT DONE PREVIOUSLY

ASSIGN SPECIFIC TASKS WHICH ALLOW EXPERTISE TO DEVELOP




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The Impact of Flexible Work Schedules

Compressed Workweek

Flextime

A scheduling policy in which full-time employees choose starting and ending times within guidelines specified by the firm.

A work schedule that allows time for community and family interests can be extremely motivating.

Can avoid commuting jams

How to coordinate and supervise workers from 6:00a – 8:00p?

  • People work longer shifts each day, but work fewer days each week…4 day shifts of 10 hours per day

  • Workers get longer weekends…4 days on, 3 days off…improves morale

  • Firms save on utility and operating expenses

  • Workers can also tire more easily…make mistakes and have accidents


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More Flexible Work Schedules

Job Sharing

Telecommuting

Doing work away from a centrally-located office.

Advantages to employers include:

Less need for office space

Greater flexibility for workers

Easiest to implement for managerial, professional, sales and IT jobs

Difficult to set up for manufacturing workers

  • A work option in which two part-time employees carry out the tasks associated with a single job.

  • Enables an organization to attract or retain valued employees who want more time to attend school or take care of family matters.

  • Workers are more efficient

  • Can health benefits be split?


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Designing Ergonomic Jobs

  • Ergonomics – the study of the interface between individuals’ physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment.

  • The goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works.

  • Redesigning work to make it more worker- friendly can lead to increased efficiencies.




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Designing Jobs That Meet Mental Capabilities and Limitations workers under the OSHA “general duty” clause,

  • Work is designed to reduce the information- processing requirements of the job.

  • Workers may be less likely to make mistakes or have accidents.

  • Too-simple jobs may be less motivating (boring)

  • Technology tools may be distracting employees from their primary task resulting in increased mistakes and accidents.

  • Reduce stressors and distractions on the job


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