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16. The bureaucracy. What is bureaucracy?. Rule by officials Indispensable, yet “illegitimate” Two issues: responsiveness : how to make bureaucrats accountable? effectiveness : no competitive market to judge efficiency. Delimiting bureaucracy:. Weber’s model of bureaucracy.

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Presentation Transcript
what is bureaucracy
What is bureaucracy?
  • Rule by officials
  • Indispensable, yet “illegitimate”
  • Two issues:
    • responsiveness: how to make bureaucrats accountable?
    • effectiveness: no competitive market to judge efficiency
weber s model of bureaucracy
Weber’s model of bureaucracy
  • Division of tasks
  • Impersonal authority
  • Recruitment based on competence
  • Job security
  • Disciplined hierarchy
evolution w europe vs us
Evolution: W Europe vs. US
  • Bureaucratization & modernization
  • From monarch’s personal service to public service
  • Depersonalization of administration
us more pragmatic
US: more pragmatic
  • 19th century: from spoils system to merit-based
  • 1883: Pendleton Act →

Civil Service Commission:

recruitment & regulation of federal employees

reaching zenith 20 th century
Reaching zenith: 20th century
  • Depression, World Wars → government intervention
  • W Europe: welfare state
  • ~1980: public employment - 1/3 of workforce (UK & Scandinavia)
1980s 1990s conservative challenge
1980s & 1990s: Conservative challenge
  • Fiscal crisis → Reagan, Thatcher
  • New style of bureaucracy:
  • Emphasis on efficiency & effectiveness
recruitment how
Recruitment: how?
  • “Strong” vs. weak states
  • Generalist(S)vs. specialist(W)
  • Generalist (unified): civil service (not specific position)
  • Specialist (departmental): specific position
representative bureaucracy
“Representative bureaucracy”
  • Theory
  • Passive representation: bureaucracy ≈ population
  • Active representation: policies ≈ public preferences
organization
Organization
  • Department (ministry)
  • Division (department)
  • Non-departmental bodies
departments divisions
Departments & divisions
  • Government department/ministry:

various functions of the state

(e.g., Ministry/Dep’t of Education)

  • Divisions: operating units (e.g., primary, secondary, higher education)
  • Hierarchical vs. autonomous (US)
non departmental public bodies
Non-departmental public bodies
  • Ambivalent position: created & funded by government, but only occasional control
  • State-owned enterprises (SOE)
  • Other statutory agencies
  • non-statutory organizations
regulatory capture
Regulatory capture
  • Arises when public agencies created to regulate a certain industry come to serve the interests of those they supervise
  • E.g., US state utility commissions
accountability
Accountability
  • Internal controls vs. external scrutiny
  • Internal controls:
  • Ministerial direction
  • Formal regulation
  • Inter-departmental competition
  • Professional standards
external scrutiny
External scrutiny
  • Legislature & judiciary
  • Ombudsman
  • Interest groups & mass media
ombudsman
Ombudsman
  • Public official appointed by the legislature to investigate allegations of maladministration in the public sector.
  • Originated in Scandinavia; emulated elsewhere
npm new public management
NPM: New public management
  • Government is the problem, not the solution; NMP:
  • administration → management
  • government → governance
  • Where? Anglo-American & Scandinavia
  • Why? “Weak” states
npm components
NPM: components
  • More discretion to managers
  • Setting explicit targets
  • resources ↔ results
  • Flexibility inrecruiting & training
  • Cost-cutting (more with less)
new democracies
New democracies
  • Legacy: over-powerful, corrupt & unaccountable bureaucracy
  • Task: shift to a Weberian model
  • Problematic for market
  • Progress: Civil Service Acts
authoritarian regimes
Authoritarian regimes
  • Bureaucracies play a crucial role
  • Sometimes a modernizing force
  • Typically a break to modernization
  • Communism: massive scale
  • Fascism: gov’t w/o administration