adolescent development and health
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Adolescent Development and Health

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 47

Adolescent Development and Health - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 354 Views
  • Uploaded on

Adolescent Development and Health. National Adolescent Health Information Center and The Public Policy Analysis & Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent & Young Adult Health Department of Pediatrics & Institute for Health Policy Studies

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Adolescent Development and Health' - Donna


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
adolescent development and health
Adolescent Development and Health

National Adolescent Health Information Center and

The Public Policy Analysis & Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent & Young Adult Health

Department of Pediatrics & Institute for Health Policy Studies

University of California, San Francisco

in this presentation
In This Presentation
  • Development
    • Tasks and Stages of Adolescence
  • Health
    • Mortality
    • Morbidity
    • Chronic Conditions
slide5
Adolescent Development

Adolescence:

  • Period of change from child adult
      • Psychological growth
      • Cognitive changes
      • Social /cultural transformation

Puberty:

  • Biologic process
  • Transition child  adult
      • Secondary sexual characteristics
      • Adult size and appearance
      • Reproductive capabilities
slide6
Tasks of Adolescence
  • Body matures to sexual adult
  • Cognitively-brain develops abstract thinking skills
  • Morally, the teen identifies meaningful moral /social standards, values and belief systems
  • Identity formed– gender, sexual, cultural
  • Teen defines an adult role with responsibilities

Source: A. Rae Simpson, PhD, Parenting of Adolescents Center, Harvard School of Public Health

slide7
Stages of Adolescent Development
  • Early Adolescence
  • Females: 9 - 13 yo
  • Males: 11 – 15 yo
  • Middle Adolescence
  • Females: 13 – 16 yo
  • Males: 14 – 17 yo
  • Late Adolescence
  • Females: 16 – 21 yo
  • Males: 17 –21 yo
slide8
Early Adolescence
  • Adjusting to body/pubertal changes “Am I normal?”
  • Concern with body image and privacy
  • Begin separation from family, increased parent-child conflict
  • Self preoccupation and fantasy
  • Moody!
  • Same-sex friends and group activities
  • Concentration of relationships with peers
  • Concrete thinking but beginning to explore new ability to abstract - focused on the present
slide9
Middle Adolescence
  • Extremely concerned with looks- “Am I attractive?”
  • Increased independence from family-(vacation dilemmas)
  • Increased importance of peer group (Everyone’s doing it)
  • Experimentation with relationships & sexual behaviors
  • Movement towards forming sexual orientation / identity
  • Increased abstract thinking ability
  • Development of ideals & selection of role models
  • The altruistic idealist
slide10
Late Adolescence
  • Autonomy nearly secured-not mean totally
  • Body image & gender role definition nearly secured
  • Thinking beyond themselvesworld view
  • Attainment of abstract thinking & useful insight
  • Greater emotional stability
  • Greater intimacy skills
  • Sexual orientation nearly secured
  • Ability to express ideas in words
  • Concern for future
  • Transition to adult roles-school, work
slide11
Protective Factors in Adolescence
  • Parental/family connectedness
  • Connectedness to a significant adult
  • School engagement & success
  • Not working, or working < 20 hours/wk
  • Being “in-sync” with peers re: physical dev
  • Perceived importance of religion and prayer
  • Participation in organized activities
background why should we invest in adolescent health
Background Why should we invest in adolescent health?
  • Annually, an estimated $700 billion is spent on preventable adolescent health problems.
  • This estimate considers only the direct and long term medical and social costs associated with 6 common health problems:
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Motor vehicle injuries
  • Alcohol & other drug problems
  • Other unintentional injuries
  • Mental health problems
mortality
Mortality
  • After peaking in the early 1990s, mortality rates have decreased to (or are near) record lows for all adolescents.
  • Over the last century, the leading causes of death for adolescents changed from natural causes to injury and violence.
  • Injury and violence account for 71% of deaths among adolescents and young adults.

Sources: CDC Wonder, Compressed Mortality Database, 2004 - http://wonder.cdc.gov;

CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

slide16
Trends in Overall Mortality by Gender, Ages 10-24, 1980-2002

Source: CDC Wonder, Compressed Mortality Database, 2004 - http://wonder.cdc.gov

mortality by race ethnicity gender ages 10 24 2002
Mortality by Race/Ethnicity & Gender, Ages 10-24, 2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

leading causes of death for adolescents and ages 10 19 2002
Leading Causes of Death for Adolescents and Ages 10-19, 2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

injury
Injury
  • Unintentional injury mortality has fallen over the past two decades due to a decrease in fatal motor vehicle accidents, the leading cause of death for adolescents.
  • 82% of high school students and 70% of 18-24 year-olds in 2003 reported that they always use seatbelts.
  • 33% of fatal crashes among 21-24 year-olds in 2002 involved alcohol.
  • 28% of 18-25 year-olds in 2003 reported that they drove under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs.

Sources: CDC/NCIPC, 2005; YRBSS, 2004; BRFSS, 2004; NHTSA, 2003; NSDUH, 2004

slide20
Unintentional Injury Mortality by Race/Ethnicity, Ages 10-24, 2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

slide21
Injury Risk Behaviors by Gender, High School Students, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

violence
Violence
  • Homicide is the second largest cause of death for adolescents.
  • In 2002, males ages 15-19 had a homicide rate 5 times the rate for same-age females (15 vs. 3/100,000).
  • In 2002, males ages 20-24 had a homicide rate 6 times the rate for same-age females (27.5 vs. 5/100,000).
  • Black, non-Hispanic males ages 15-24 had the highest homicide rate (86/100,000) in 2002.
  • Homicide rates have decreased in the past decade among ages 10-24.

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

slide23
Homicide Mortality by Gender & Race/Ethnicity, Ages 10-24, 2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

homicide trends males ages 15 19 1990 2002
Homicide Trends, Males, Ages 15-19, 1990-2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

violence related behavior by gender high school students 2003
Violence-Related Behavior by Gender, High School Students, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

suicide
Suicide
  • In 2002, males ages 15-19 had a suicide rate 5 times the rate for same-age females (12 vs. 2/100,000).
  • In 2002, males ages 20-24 had a suicide rate 6 times the rate for same-age females (21 vs. 3.5/100,000).
  • American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic males ages 15-24 had the highest suicide rate (36) in 2002.
  • Suicide rates have decreased in the past decade among ages 10-24, from 9/100,000 in 1981 to 7/100,000 in 2002.

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

slide27
Non-Lethal Suicidal Behavior by Gender, High School Students, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

slide28
Suicide Mortality by Race/Ethnicity & Gender, Ages 10-24, 2002

Source: CDC, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars/

slide29
Sadness or Hopelessness which Prevented Usual Activities by Gender & Race/Ethnicity,

High School Students, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

slide30
Learning Disabilities & ADHD by Gender, Ages 12-17, 2001

Source: Bloom et al., 2003; NHIS; Parent report - http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm

mental health
Mental Health
  • Among 12-17 year-olds in 2003, past year:
    • 21% received mental health treatment or counseling.
  • Among 18-25 year-olds in 2003, past year:
    • 14% have a serious mental illness; higher among females, non-Hispanic Whites & non-college bound;
    • 35% of those with serious mental illness received mental health treatment or counseling.
  • There are few national data on adolescent mental health status.

Sources: NSDUH, 2004; Child Trends, 2003 - http://www.childtrends.org/

substance use
Substance Use
  • Use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs has decreased from the peaks of the late 1970s and early 1980s.
  • American Indian/Alaskan Native and White adolescents report the highest levels of use.
  • Rates of heavy substance use are a continuing concern.
slide33
Trends in Past Thirty-Day Substance Use, 12th Graders, 1975-2003

Source: Monitoring the Future, 2004 - http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/

past month substance use by type and race ethnicity ages 12 17 2004
Past Month Substance Use by Type and Race/Ethnicity, Ages 12-17, 2004

Source: National Survey on Drug Use & Health, 2005 - http://www.drugabusestatistics.samhsa.gov/nsduh.htm

reproductive health
Reproductive Health
  • Overall, reproductive health trends over the past decade are positive:
    • Young people are delaying sexual activity;
    • Among sexually active high school students, there has been an increase in condom use;
    • The rates of adolescent pregnancies, births and abortion have declined;
    • The prevalence of most sexually transmitted infections has decreased.
reproductive health36
Reproductive Health
  • However, certain trends warrant continued concern:
    • The wide prevalence of Chlamydia, as well as increase in rates over the past five years;
    • The relatively modest decline in the pregnancy rate among Hispanic adolescents;
    • The continuing high rate of STIs among young Black females.
slide37
Pregnancy, Birth & Abortion Rates Among Females Ages 15-19, 1980-2000

Source: Henshaw, 2004 -http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/teen_stats.html

slide38
Sexual Intercourse Experience by Race/Ethnicity, Gender & Grade Level, 2003

9th Grade

12th Grade

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

slide39
Chlamydia Rates by Race/Ethnicity & Gender, Ages 15-19, 2003

Source: STD Surveillance Report, 2004 - http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Stats_Trends/Stats_and_Trends.htm

slide40
Overweight
  • The prevalence of being overweight has increased among adolescents in the past three decades .
  • Increases are found in all regions of the country, urban/rural, both sexes, all ethnic groups, rich and poor.
  • Obesity has been linked with numerous health problems including heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes and cancer.
slide41
Overweight Prevalence by Gender and Race/Ethnicity, Ages 12-19, 1976-2002

Source: Health, United States, 2005 - http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hus.htm

physical activity
Physical Activity
  • Nearly half of American youth are not vigorously active on a regular basis.
  • Physical activity declines with age from childhood into adulthood.

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

vigorous physical activity among high school students by grade level gender 2003
Vigorous Physical Activity Among High School Students by Grade Level & Gender, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

nutrition
Nutrition
  • The majority of high school students report eating diets low in fat.
  • Only one fifth of students report eating the recommended five or more servings of fruits and vegetables per day.

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

slide45
Percentage of High School Students Who Ate 5+ Servings of Fruits & Vegetables by Gender and Race/Ethnicity, 2003

Source: Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 2005 - http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Adolescence is an important developmental stage.
  • Significant improvements in adolescent mortality and morbidity has occurred over the past two decades, yet adolescent health risk taking behaviors requires ongoing investments in such areas as tobacco, substance use, mental health, and reproductive health.
slide47
National Adolescent Health Information Center and Public Policy Analysis & Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent & Young Adult Health

ON THE WEB:

http://nahic.ucsf.edu/

http://policy.ucsf.edu/

BY EMAIL:

[email protected]

[email protected]

BY PHONE: (415) 502-4856

ad